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Κυριακή, 5 Οκτωβρίου 2014

ΟΙ 5 ΑΙΤΙΕΣ ΤΟΥ ΣΥΝΔΡΟΜΟΥ ΚΑΤΑΡΡΕΥΣΗΣ ΤΩΝ ΜΕΛΙΣΣΩΝ(Colony Collapse Disorder)





5 Causes of Colony Collapse Disorder
And how the combination is creating 3 scenarios
Below are five ways pesticides and GMO crops are creating problems with honeybees:

I. Neonicotinoids – insecticides that, like glyphosate, are also endocrine hormone disrupters.
The neonicotinoid (neonics) coating on hybrid and GMO seeds is in a class of insecticides that share a common mode of action affecting the central nervous system of insects, resulting in paralysis and death. 

The neonics include imidacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, nithiazine, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam. 

In the publication “Are Neonicotinoids Killing the Bees?” by The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation they concluded that: “Honey bees exposed to sublethal levels of neonicotinoids can experience problems with flying and navigation, reduced taste sensitivity, and slower learning of new tasks, which all impact foraging ability.”[1]

Since 1991 Bayer Chemical Company has produced the insecticide Imidacloprid, which belongs to the neonicotinoids group of chemicals related to nicotine.

Imidacloprid is one of the most used insecticides in the world for field and horticultural crops. In addition to its use as a foliar insecticide, it is often used as a seed-dressing, especially for maize, sunflower, and canola. Imidacloprid is sold under the trade names 'Gaucho', 'Confidor', 'Chinook', 'Antarc' and 'Imprimo'. 

Bayer exports over 1.000 tons of Imidacloprid annually to more than 120 countries.
 Last year´s sales were $597 million.


Imidacloprid is Bayer´s best-selling pesticide.

Since patent protection for imidacloprid expired in most countries, Bayer brought a similar neonicotinoid to the market in 2003. 

Sales of Clothianidin (product names: 'Elado', 'Poncho') amounted to $192 million last year.

 The substance is mainly used for seed coating of maize and canola.
Another study using the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiacloprid indicated that a non-lethal dose impaired the honey bee’s homing instinct.[2] Whitehorn et al. who fed bumble bees with pollen containing 6 µg/kg and sugar water containing 0.7 µg/l imidacloprid found significant depressing effects on several parameters of their natural development (queen production, growth rate).[3] Neonicotinoids also affect the honey bee’s nervous system, “Neonicotinoids cause excitation of the neurons and, because of a high concentration of nACh receptors in honeybees, the eventual paralysis could be very profound at low concentration of neonicotinoids, leading to death.”[4]
Neonicotinoids are systemic chemicals that spread from the seed throughout the plant and disrupt the nervous system of any insect which comes in contact with that plant. 

The neurotoxins travel into the pollen and the nectar and can poison beneficial insects such as bees. Estimations for the LD 50 lie between 3-50 ng/bee (3-50 ng = 0.000003-0.00005mg). That means that 50% of the bees which consume 3-50 ng of the pesticide, die.[5]   


Glyphosate
In the farming community today about 90% of our commercially grown field crops are GMO, genetically modified organisms ‘engineered’ to tolerate the direct application of the herbicide Roundup®  The idea was to spray this herbicide on the GMO crops to kill weeds, but not the GMO crop. 
Glyphosate is the key ingredient in Roundup© that works by chelating or binding key minerals in the plant necessary for enzyme functions and soil microorganisms. Soil minerals taken up by the plant are not useable; and without these essential minerals, the weeds die. 

Glyphosate is taken up by all parts of the plant – leaves, stems, and roots - and moves into the flower and seed. Freezing and boiling will not destroy glyphosate. 
It also is a very difficult to degrade so that each application of glyphosate adds to what is already in the plant and soil, multiplying its affects.

Because Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum, non-selective systemic herbicide, it will kill virtually all types of plants and is formulated for grasses, sedges, broad-leaf weeds, and woody plants. It also is patented as a broad spectrum antibiotic. An antibiotic prevents bacterial cells from multiplying so that the host’s defense mechanism can fight the infection or kill the bacteria: i.e. by stopping the mechanism responsible for building bacterial cell walls.[6]

The minerals chelated by glyphosate are vital to the immune system of all living animals, including the honeybee. 
The honeybees are the most important pollinators we have because they maintain the integrity of our food by not cross pollinating. 

Honeybees are responsible for 85% of our food. 

When the honeybee harvests nectar, pollen, and propolis from plants sprayed with an herbicide containing glyphosate, their immune system is not the only physical aspect affected.

Dr. Don Huber, Emeritus Professor, Purdue University, is internationally recognized as a Soil Pathologist and travels globally teaching about the damaging effects of glyphosate in Roundup® type herbicides. He offers some of the reasons we are experiencing a global crises regarding the decline of honeybees due to glyphosate.


Some things we know about glyphosate influencing plant nutrition and disease.


ü  It is a strong metal chelator for Ca (Calcium), Co (Cobalt), Cu (Copper), Fe (iron), Mn (Manganese), Mg (Magnesium), Ni (Nickel, and Zn (Zinc)) – in the spray tank, plant and soil.
ü  It is rapidly absorbed by roots, stems, and leaves and systemically moves throughout the plant (normal and GMO (RR) plants).
ü  It accumulates in meristematic tissues (root and shoot tips and reproductive tissues) of normal and RR plants.
ü  It inhibits the EPSPS enzyme in the Shikimate metabolic pathway and many other plant essential enzymes.
ü  It increases susceptibility to draught and disease.
ü  It has non-specific herbicidal activity (broad-spectrum weed control).
ü  Some of the applied glyphosate is exuded from roots into soil although most will stay in the plant for the life of the plant.
ü  It is immobilized in soil by chelating with soil cat-ions (Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn).
ü  It persists & accumulates in soil & plants for extended periods (years) – it is not readily ‘biodegradable.’
ü  It is desorbed from soil particles by phosphorus compounds to again be an active herbicide.
ü  It is toxic to many beneficial soil organisms that facilitate nutrient access, availability, or absorption of nutrients.
ü  It inhibits the uptake and translocation of Fe, Mn, and Zn at very low non-herbicidal rates.
ü  It stimulates soilborne pathogenic and other soil microbes that reduce nutrient availability.
ü  It reduces secondary cell wall formation and lignin.
ü  It is toxic to N-fixing bacteria and inhibits nitrogen fixation.
ü  It reduces Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, S, and Zn in plant tissues and seed.
ü  Residual soil activity can damage plants through root uptake.
ü  It increases mycotoxins (secondary metabolites produced by fungi) in stems, straw, grain, and fruit.
ü  It reduces photosynthesis (CO2 fixation).
ü  It accumulates in root nodules to chelate Ni and inhibit N-fixation in legumes


It should be recognized that there is nothing in the glyphosate-tolerant plant that operates on the glyphosate applied to the plant. All the technology does is insert an alternative enzyme (EPSPS-II) that is not blocked by glyphosate in mature tissue. Thus, when glyphosate enters the plant, it is not selective; it chelates with a host of elements to influence nutrient availability, disease resistance, and the plant’s other physiological functions for the life of the plant or until it is exuded through the roots.
Roundup is not the only herbicide containing glyphosate. 

Some of the many others are:
Roundup, Roundup Original, UltraMax, WeatherMax, and PowerMax are a few of the formulations manufactured by Monsanto Co.
Accord XRT II and Accord Concentrate are the trade names for these glyphosate herbicide products manufactured by Dow AgroSciences LLC. These products are most commonly applied to land-based foliage leaves.
Rodeo, manufactured by Dow AgroSciences LLC, contains 52% glyphofate and is used by our utility companies and applied to streams and ponds.
Touchdown Hi-Tech, Touchdown Total and Touchdown IQ are all formulations of glyphosate herbicide under the trade name Touchdown, which is manufactured by Syngenta. Touchdown Total was formulated for use on glyphosate-tolerant crops, while Touchdown Hi-Tech is for consumers who use their own additives and want to get rid of dense foliage.


II. Glyphosate Is an Antibiotic that Kills Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium
Glyphosate is also patented as an antibiotic—and a very effective one at that— against a large number of beneficial organisms. Unfortunately, like all antibiotics, it also kills vitally important beneficial soil bacteria and essential animal gut bacteria.

“Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus faecalis—these are organisms that keep you healthy either by providing accessibility to the minerals in your food or producingamino acids and many of the vitamins that you need for life. They’re also the natural biological defenses to keep Clostridium, Salmonella, Listeria and E. coli pathogens from developing in your system,” Dr. Huber explains.

“When you take the good bacteria out, then the bad bacteria fill that void, because there aren’t any voids in nature. We have all of these gut-related problems, whether it’s autism, leaky gut, C. difficile diarrhea, gluten intolerance, or any of the other problems. All of these diseases are an expression of disruption of that intestinal microflora that keeps you healthy.”[8]
From PLOS ONE: “The honey crop is a central organ in the honeybee's food production between the oesophagus and ventriculus, used for collection and transport of nectar to the hive. The crop microbiota of A. mellifera is composed of 13 bacterial species within the genera Lactobacillus andBifidobacterium and it plays a key role in the production of honey and bee-bread, long term stored food for both adult honeybees and larvae.”[9]
Lactobacillus is present everywhere - soil, flora, and in the digestive tract of humans, animals, insects, invertibrates, etc. Glyphosate kills theLactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus etc, including in the bee’s gut, which allows the bad bacteria, i.e. nosema to take over. All living animals have Lactobacillus bacteria in their systems. When the immune system is compromised, it is often too weak to fight off bacteria. When weakened enough, viruses can also sicken the host.
In every living animal there are liver enzymes called Cytochrome P450 that detoxifies the body. The honeybees also have this P450 enzyme. If glyphosate is present at very low levels in the ingested pollen and honey, the liver enzyme P450 is destroyed, thereby allowing the glyphosate to pass through into the bee’s system during the larval stage.

III. Botulism
“Glyphosate suppresses the antagonistic effect of Enterococcus spp. on Clostridium botulinum in farm animals,[10],[11] favoring the overgrowth of botulism in the gut of animals and poultry.” Numerous bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) produce bacteriocines directed against C. botulinum and other pathogens: Lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacilli, Lactococci and Enterococci, generate bacteriocines that are effective against Clostridium spp. A reduction of LAB in the GIT microbiota by ingestion of strong biocides like glyphosate could be an explanation for the observed increase in levels of C. botulinum associated diseases. In the present paper, we report on the toxicity of glyphosate to the most prevalent Enterococcus spp. in the GIT. Ingestion of this herbicide could be a significant predisposing factor that is associated with the increase in C. botulinum mediated diseases in cattle.”[12]
“The farmer, who produces 13,000 pigs a year and supplies Europe's largest pork company, Danish Crown, says he became so alarmed at the apparent levels of deformity, sickness, deaths, and poor productivity he was witnessing in his animals that he decided to experiment with a different feed. He changed their diet from a GM to a non-GM feed.
Despite not all of the apparent problems disappearing, the results, he says, were still remarkable: "When using GM feed I saw symptoms of bloat, stomach ulcers, high rates of diarrhea... but when I switched [to non GM feed] these problems went away, some within a matter of days." 
The farmer says that not only has the switch in diet improved the visible health of the pigs, it has made the farm more profitable, with less medicine use and higher productivity. "Less abortions, more piglets born in each litter, and breeding animals living longer."[14]
Idiopathic Brood Disease Syndrome (IBDS)[15] in the hive has a somewhat similar odor to European or American Foul Brood Disease, but smells differently. It is a fluid mass in the bottom of a capped cell. Last year there was a foul-smelling odor coming from a full frame of capped brood. When a few cells were uncapped, there was a brown mass of rotting larva on the bottom and filling half of the cell with a faint point at the top of the mass indicating the tip of a larva. Every capped cell on both sides had the same odor and same larvae condition.
The same situation of C. botulinum perhaps causing diseases happening in animals may be happening to the honeybees.  No published paper or documents can be found indicating any tests are being done to check for botulism in dead larva.


IV. Endocrine Hormone Disrupter
Glyphosate is an endocrine hormone disrupter in animals and human beings.[15] Honeybee queens lay eggs and, depending on the size of the cell, can lay a male or female worker. But because of its complexity, there hasn’t been many studies done on the queen honeybee’s endocrine system.
Our second apiary is located next to large tracts of farmland where alfalfa hay and GMO corn are grown. In 2011 the GMO farmer doubled his crops and grew his GMO corn within a few thousand feet of the apiary. The corn was planted late that year and was the only thing growing during the dearth due to the drought in our area. The following February every bit of the bee bread created in the previous fall was pulled out of the cells and dropped onto the screened bottom board. The only bee bread in the hive was newly created. The bee bread’s shiny surface indicated it was produced that same season.
In the same apiary that same spring, a queen marched across the comb for 3 months without laying one egg. When the hive got down to perhaps 100 bees, the queen was observed acting drunk, twitched when she walked, and held onto the frame’s edge with her back legs and swung there for a few moments. There was plenty of honey and beebread in the hive, which was harvested.

The following year 3 queens died in another yard. Going over the notes from the previous year we discerned that the honey from the deadout hive that was fed to those in the other apiary was the reason the queens didn’t survive  



V. Chelating minerals needed for the immune system - Glyphosate Reduces Nutrient Uptake and Increases Susceptibility to Diseases

Manganese is made available to the plant in most of our farmed soils primarily by the action of soil organisms that can reduce it to a plant available form. The organisms that make manganese available for plants are very sensitive to glyphosate so that their activity drops off rapidly when glyphosate is used. Glyphosate is toxic to many other beneficial microorganisms such as the natural biological controls for diseases, the hormone producers and some synergistic organisms. Thus, glyphosate is a very strong biocide for many of the beneficial organisms and a very potent stimulant for many of those organisms that cause soil-borne diseases of many of our crops.
You can’t kill a plant with glyphosate in sterile soil because it is the stimulation of those disease organisms in the soil that are the actual herbicidal mode of action of glyphosate. What glyphosate does is destroy the natural resistance of plants much like AIDS does to humans so that they will be killed by the plant disease organisms. When glyphosate is applied to plants growing in field soil, those disease organisms rapidly colonize them and bring about that herbicidal mode of action to kill the plants. It only takes 3 or 4 hours for plants to be infected, and death initiated, through that compromised resistance mechanism. The stimulation of disease organisms creates super pathogens that effectively serve as the herbicidal mode of action in a glyphosate modified environment.[16] Micronutrient deficiency is a common condition associated with CCD.
According to Dr. Seneff, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),
“…genetically engineered corn has been found to contain 13 ppm of glyphosate, compared to zero in non-GMO corn. At 13 ppmGMO corn contains more than 18 times the “safe” level of glyphosate set by the EPA. Organ damage in animals has occurred at levels as low as 0.1 ppm. If that’s not reason enough to become a label reader to avoid anything with corn in it, such as corn oil or high fructose corn syrup, I don’t know what is.”[17]


3 Ways the above actions are creating 3 other scenarios.

1.   Surfactants (detergents) are used with herbicides, fungicides and pesticides.

 Surfactants are detergents that adhere to the plant to force it to open its cells to the chemicals sprayed with the surfactant.
 The combination of the surfactant and glyphosate leads to mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, and necrosis, under conditions where neither substance working alone achieved this effect.[18]

2.   Neonicotinoids, glyphosate, and surfactants create weak immune systems in the honeybee colony. A weak immune system allows bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases, i.e.: nosema, winged virus, IBDS, EFB, etc. to take over the hive.
3.   There are about 17 generations of brood hatched during a single annual cycle. Each generation is getting weaker from queens and drones affected by chemicals, with the weakness passing down to each generation.

We already have a weak gene pool with limited genetic diversity available because there are so few commercial queen rearers in the US.


What can we do?

1.   If you suspect you have residual glyphosate sprays, you can apply 100-500 pounds of calcium sulfate (gypsum powder) per acre. Not only is it a fertilizer and breaks up clay soil, the gypsum will unlock the minerals tied up by glyphosate’s chelation process.
2.   Plant high nutrient efficient floras containing the minerals lacking in the Roundup® affected plants and soil. For specific nutrient enhancement, you can plant: [19]

a.  Calcium: Alfalfa, Almonds, Amaranth, Angelica, Anise, Apple, Apricot, Asparagus, Avocado, Banana, Basil, Beans, Beetroot, Blackberry, Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Beetroot, Borage, Brazil nuts, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Burdock, Carob, Carrot, Cabbage, Celery, Chamomile, Cayenne, Celery, Chervil, Chickweed, Chicory, Comfrey, Cramp Bark, Cucumber, Damiana, Dandelion, Dates, Dulse, Elder, Eyebright, Fennel, Fenugreek, Figs, Flaxseed, Garlic, Ginger, Ginseng, Goldenseal, Hazelnuts, Hops, Horseradish, Horsetail, Irish Moss, Lemongrass, Marshmallow, Mustard greens, Lemongrass, Lettuce, Mango, Mistletoe, Mullein, Mustard, Nettle, Nuts, Oats, Orange, Paprika, Parsley, Passion fruit, Peach, Pears, Peas, Peppermint, Pineapple, Plantain, Pokeweed, Potato, Prune, Raspberry, Red Clover, Rosehips, Rosemary, Rhubarb, Rocket, Rosehip, Sage, Sarsaparilla, Sesame seeds, Shepherds Purse, Sheep Sorrel, Slippery Elm, Spinach, Strawberry, Soy products, Sunflower seeds, Tomato, Turnip greens, Valerian. Vervain, Violet leaves, Watercress, White Oak bark, Yarrow, Yellow Dock, Zucchini comfrey, red raspberries, mullein, etc. In nature, it is a characteristic trait for any plant leaf feeling hairy to the touch to contain calcium.
b.    Copper: Almonds, Avocado, Barley, Beetroot, Brazil nuts, Broccoli, Burdock, Chili (some varieties), Chickweed, Comfrey, Echinacea, Garlic, Green leafy vegetables, Horsetail, Kelp, Lentils, Mushrooms, Nuts, Oats, Oranges, Parsley, Pecan nuts, Potato, Radish, Raisins, Red Clover, Rye, Sarsaparilla, Seeds, Sheep Sorrel, Slippery Elm, Soy beans, Watercress, Wheat, Yarrow.
c.    Iron: Alfalfa, Almonds, Angelica, Anise, Apple, Apricot, Avocado, Banana, Basil, Beans, Beetroot, Bilberry, Blackberry, Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Broccoli, Burdock, Capsicum, Carrot, Catnip, Cayenne, Celery, Chamomile, Chervil, Chickweed, Chicory, Comfrey, Cucumber, Dandelion, Dates, Echinacea, Eyebright, Fennel, Fenugreek, Ginger, Ginseng, Goldenseal, Horehound, Horseradish, Horsetail, Kelp, Kidney beans, Lemongrass, Lentils, Lettuce, Lima beans, Liquorice, Mango, Marshmallow, Milk Thistle, Mullein, Mustard, Nettle, Nuts, Oats, Paprika, Parsley, Passion fruit, Peach, Pear, Peas, Peppermint, Pineapple, Plantain, Pokeweed, Potato, Prunes, Pumpkin seeds, Radish, Raisins, Raspberry, Red Clover, Rhubarb, Rice, Rosehip, Rosemary, Sarsaparilla, Scullcap, Sesame seeds, Sheep Sorrel, Shepherds Purse, Slippery Elm, Soy beans, Spinach, Strawberry, Thyme, Tomato, Uva Ursi, Watercress, Whole grains, Yarrow, Yellow Dock, Yerba Mate, Zucchini
d.  Magnesium: Alfalfa, Aloe Vera, Anise, Apple, Apricot, Banana, Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Capsicum, Carrot, Catnip, Cayenne, Celery, Chamomile, Chervil, Citrus fruits, Chickweed, Chillies, Comfrey, Cucumber, Dandelion, Eyebright, Fennel, Fenugreek, Garlic, Ginger, Gotu Kola, Hops, Horsetail, Kelp, Lemongrass, Lettuce, Liquorice, Mango, Mistletoe, Mullein, Nettle, Oats, Paprika, Parsley, Parsnip, Passion fruit, Peach, Peanuts, Peas, Peppermint, Pineapple, Potato, Primrose, Prune, Radish, Raspberry, Red Clover, Rhubarb, Rosemary, Sage, Sesame seeds, Sheep Sorrel, Shepherds Purse, Soya milk, Spinach, Strawberry, Tomato, Valerian, Watercress, Wild Rice, Willow, Wintergreen, Wood Betony, Yarrow, Yellow Dock, Zucchini
e.   Manganese: Alfalfa, Apricot, Avocado, Banana, Barberry, Beans, Blueberry, Broccoli, Burdock, Catnip, Celery, Chamomile, Chickweed, Dandelion, Dates, Eyebright, Fennel, Fenugreek, Figs (dried), Garlic, Ginger, Ginseng, Goldenseal, Grains, Hops, Horsetail, Legumes, Lemongrass, Liquorice, Mullein, Nuts, Oranges, Parsley, Peach, Peas, Peppermint, Pineapple, Potato, Raspberry, Red Clover, Rosehips, Sarsaparilla, Sheep Sorrel, Slippery Elm, Spinach, Strawberry, Tea, Valerian, Vervain, Watercress, Wild Yam, Wood Betony, Yarrow, Yellow Dock.
f.      Molybdenum: Beans, Chickweed, Legumes, Lima beans, Peas, Red Clover, Soy beans, Whole grains, Seeds
g.     Nickel: Buckwheat, Cabbage, Legumes, Oats, Red Clover, Yellow Dock.
h.  Phosphorus: Alfalfa, Apple, Almond, Apricot, Asparagus, Avocado, Banana, Basil, Beetroot, Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Brussels Sprouts, Capsicum, Caraway, Catnip, Cayenne, Celery, Chervil, Chickweed, Chilies, Citrus fruits, Comfrey, Corn, Cucumber, Dandelion, Dates, Fennel, Garlic, Ginger, Globe Artichoke, Goldenseal, Grains, Grape, Horseradish, Legumes, Lentils, Lettuce, Liquorice root, Mango, Mustard, Nuts, Parsley, Parsnip, Passion fruit, Peach, Pear, Peas, Pineapple, Potato, Prune, Pumpkin seeds, Purslane, Pokeweed, Raspberry, Red Clover, Rhubarb, Rosehip, Rosemary, Sage, Sesame seeds, Slippery Elm, Spinach, Strawberry, Tomato, Watercress, White Oak Bark, Wood Betony, Yellow Dock, Zucchini
i.   Potassium: Alfalfa, Amaranth (green), Anise, Apple, Apricot, Avocado, Banana, Beetroot, Berries, Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Birch, Borage, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Burdock, Capsicum, Carrot, Catnip, Celery, Chamomile, Chaparral, Cherry, Chervil, Chicory, Chilies, Coltsfoot, Comfrey, Centaury, Cucumber, Dandelion, Dates, Echinacea, Goldenseal, Eggplant, Elderberry, Eyebright, Fennel, Fig, Garlic, Ginger, Globe Artichoke, Grape, Grapefruit, Grains, Hops, Horehound, Horseradish, Horsetail, Kiwi fruit, Kohlrabi, Lemon, Lettuce, Mistletoe, Mullein, Mustard, Nettle, Nuts, Oats, Okra, Onion, Orange, Pawpaw, Parsley, Parsnip, Passion fruit, Peach, Peanuts, Pear, Peas, Peppermint, Pineapple, Plantain, Plum, Potato, Primrose, Prune, Radish, Raspberry, Red Clover, Rhubarb, Rockmelon, Rosehips, Rosemary, Sage, Savory, Scullcap, Shepherds Purse, Slippery Elm, Soya beans, Spinach, Strawberry, Sunflower seeds, Sweet Potato, Tomato, Turnip, White Oak Bark, Yarrow, Watercress, Watermelon, Yarrow, Yellow Dock, Zucchini
j.  Selenium: Alfalfa, Brazil nuts, Broccoli, Burdock, Catnip, Cayenne, Chamomile, Chickweed, Fennel seed, Fenugreek, Garlic, Ginseng, Grains, Hawthorn berry, Hops, Horsetail, Kelp, Lemongrass, Lobelia, Milk Thistle, Nettle, Nuts, Oats, Onion, Parsley, Peppermint, Potato, Raspberry leaf, Red Clover, Rice (brown), Rosehips, Sarsaparilla, Slippery Elm, Strawberry, Uva Ursi, Whole grains, Yarrow, Yellow Dock.
k.   Zinc: Alfalfa, Almonds, Asparagus, Avocado, Beans, Burdock, Cayenne, Cauliflower, Chamomile, Chervil, Chickweed, Comfrey, Dandelion, Eyebright, Fennel, Garlic, Grains, Hops, Horehound, Horsetail, Liquorice, Mango, Marshmallow, Milk Thistle, Mullein, Mushrooms, Nettle, Nuts, Parsley, Potato, Pumpkin seeds, Red Clover, Rosehips, Rosemary, Sage, Sarsaparilla, Scullcap, Sheep Sorrel, Skullcap, Soy beans, Slippery Elm, Spinach, Strawberry, Sunflower seeds, Wild Yam.
3.   Join organizations that spread the word about glyphosate and GMO.
4.   Talk to your neighbors about spraying their gardens. Take printed proof with you. And perhaps a jar of honey.
5.   Provide a probiotic feed for the bees as follows:

Sugar Water: In a gallon container put in 6 cups of sugar and enough boiling water to fill the container half full. While it is cooling make the probiotic water:

Probiotic Water: Dissolve 1 capsule of Ultimate Probiotic (dry room-temperature probiotic powder in vegetarian capsule) in 1 cup of tepid water (not hot).

Per box of bees or per top-bar hive: Just before feeding, add 2 Tbsp. of probiotic water to ½ gal of cooled sugar water and feed once every 3 weeks. Stop feeding about 3-4  weeks before the end of fall blooms to give the bees time to blend your feed with natural nectar before capping for winter.


[2] “Neonicotinoids interfere with specific components of navigation in honeybees.” Fischer JMüller TSpatz AKGreggers UGrünewald BMenzel R PLoS One. 2014 Mar 19;9(3):e91364. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091364. eCollection 2014.
[3] Whitehorn PR, O'connor S, Wackers FL, Goulson D (2012) Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production. Science 336: 351–352. doi: 10.1126/science.1215025

[4] ACTA BIOLOGICA SLOVENICA, LJUBLJANA 2013 Vol. 56, [t. 1: 11–25, The synergy of xenobiotics in honey bee Apis mellifera: mechanisms and effects Sinergizem ksenobiotikov v medonosni čebeli Apis mellifera: mehanizmi in učinki. Gordana Glavan* and Janko Božič, University of Ljubljana, Biotehnical faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, Ljubljana, SI-1000, Slovenia
[7] AG CHEMICAL AND CROP NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS – CURRENT UPDATE, Don M. Huber, Emeritus Professor, Purdue University, pdf

[9] Symbionts as Major Modulators of Insect Health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and Honeybees, Alejandra Vásquez, Eva Forsgren, Ingemar Fries, Robert J. Paxton, Emilie Flaberg, Laszlo Szekely, Tobias C. Olofsson, Published: March 12, 2012DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033188


[10] Monika KrügerAwad Ali ShehataWieland SchrödlArne Rodloff , Institute of Bacteriology and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Leipzig University, An den Tierkliniken 29, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. Anaerobe (Impact Factor: 2.02). 02/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2013.01.005 Source: PubMed

[11] The effect of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro,
Current Microbiology:  CMB-12-11-1180.R1, 15-Nov-2012. Shehata, Awad; University Leipzig, Institute of Bacteriology Schrödl, Wieland; University Leipzig, Institute of Bacteriology Aldin, Alaa; Institute of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Leipzig University Hafez, Hafez; Free University, Poultry Diseases Krüger, Monika; University Leipzig, Institute of Bacteriology

[12] Glyphosate suppresses the antagonistic effect of Enterococcus spp. On Clostridium botulinum


Monika Krüger a, Awad Ali Shehata a,b,*, Wieland Schrödl a, Arne Rodloff c, 


a. Institute of Bacteriology and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Leipzig University, An den Tierkliniken 29, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany
Poultry and Rabbit Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Minoufiya University, Egypt
Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Leipzig, Liebig Straße. 21, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany

[14] Prev Vet Med. 2013 Feb 1;108(2-3):225-33. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2012.08.004. Epub 2012 Aug 31. Idiopathic brood disease syndrome and queen events as precursors of colony mortality in migratory beekeeping operations in the eastern United States. vanEngelsdorp D1Tarpy DR,Lengerich EJPettis JS.

[15] Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines. Celine Gasniera, Coralie Dumontb, Nora Benachoura, Emilie Clair a, Marie-Christine Chagnonb, Gilles-Eric Seralini a, 2009
∗ University of Caen, Institute of Biology, Lab. Biochemistry EA2608, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex, France University of Burgundy, Lab. Food Toxicology UMR1129, 1 Esplanade Erasme, 21000 Dijon, France

[16] Failed Promises; Flawed Science: The Effects of Glyphosate (Roundup®) and Genetically Engineered Crops on Soils, Crops, Animals and Consumers, Don M. Huber, Emeritus Professor of Plant Pathology, Purdue University, Nov. 2011

[18] Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases. Anthony Samsel 1 and Stephanie Seneff, Entropy 201315, 1416-1463; doi:10.3390/e15041416



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