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Δε φτάνει ο ήλιος μονάχα, η γη σοδειά να δώσει, χρειάζονται κι άλλα πολλά, και προπαντός η γνώση… (Κωστής Παλαμάς)

Έλληνες, ο πραγματικός Έλληνας ηγέτης θα βρεθεί. Το πιο σημαντικό αυτή τη στιγμή είναι να βρεθεί ο πραγματικός Έλληνας ΠΟΛΙΤΗΣ!"

"Προδότης δεν είναι μόνο αυτός που φανερώνει τα μυστικά της πατρίδος στους εχθρούς, αλλά είναι και εκείνος που ενώ κατέχει δημόσιο αξίωμα, εν γνώση του δεν προβαίνει στις απαραίτητες ενέργειες για να βελτιώσει το βιοτικό επίπεδο των ανθρώπων πάνω στους οποίους άρχει..." - Θουκυδίδης (460-398 π.Χ.)

Λένε ότι οι πραγματικοί φίλοι μπορεί να περάσουν μεγάλα χρονικά διαστήματα χωρίς να μιλήσουν ή να ειδωθούν, χωρίς ποτέ να τεθεί σε αμφιβολία η φιλία τους. Όταν βλέπονται, ενημερώνονται σαν να είχαν μιλήσει την προηγούμενη ημέρα, χωρίς να λαμβάνεται υπόψη ο χρόνος που πέρασε ή πόσο μακρυά ήταν!

“Γίνε εσύ η αλλαγή, αν θες να αλλάξεις τον κόσμο” Μ.Γκάντι

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Παρασκευή, 6 Μαρτίου 2015

Dadant κυψέλες-το σύστημα και η ανάπτυξη τους στην Γερμανία

Η ανάρτηση αυτή έχει σκοπό:
  • να κάνει γνωστή την χρήση των κυψελών Ντανταντ στην Γερμανία, με την εκμυστήρευση ενός απλού Γερμανού μελισσοκόμου.
  • πλεονεκτήματα τους
  • διάφορα μελισσοκομικά θέματα
  • ενέργειες κάθε μήνα


Δυστυχώς είναι στα Αγγλικά,θα γίνει προσπάθεια για μερική μετάφραση...


Dadant hives - system and its development

Especially in the German-speaking countries, there are a lot of different hives.
Dadant also has its own history of development:

Charles Dadant, a native of France, took over from the Americans Quinby its prey with 8 frames. 

Dadant that booty has expanded to 12 frames. (US Dadant)

His son Camil has Dadant later shortened the length of the frames (upper straps 20 ") Langstroth (upper straps 482 mm).
This by Camil Dadant last "modified" prey was also used by Brother Adam at Buckfast.

Günter Ries, founder of the "Buckfast community," today "community of European Buckfast bee-keeper" has worked hard to ensure the dissemination of such prey.

Modified Dadant is identical to Dadant after Adam or Dadant by Ries. 



A Swiss beekeepers has also changed the Dadant and redefined the dimensions of the frames. Why is not known to me. This booty is known today under the name Dadant sheet.




To illustrate the difference: 

Dadant modified: upper beam length: 482 mm,    Outside Dimension frames   Brood box: 448 x 285 mm ( Γονοφωλιά)

          "                      "         Honey Space: 448 x 141 mm (μελιτοθάλαμος)



Dadant sheet:            Upper beam length: 470 mm,    Outside Dimension frames   Brood box: 435 x 300 mm

                      "                      "        Honey Space: 435 x 160 mm


Almost throughout Europe Dadant sheet is used predominantly.


Σχεδόν σε όλη την Ευρώπη Dadant sheet χρησιμοποιείται κατά κύριο λόγο .

In Germany the modified Dadant has, however, established since brother Adam as a native German for many beekeepers was the model and its equipment as with velvet operation

the "ne plus ultra" was adopted. 

Unfortunately, another slight modifications are distributed today by different manufacturers, which mainly consist of the design of the frames. 

So there are differences in the width of the ears, the thickness of the wood and also slight variations in dimensions. 

This will probably serve the customer loyalty to the respective providers, but causes hives and frames that are not compatible. 


So my tip: buy hives and frames from the same manufacturer. 

The content of this page is the manuscript as "GERMAN Bee JOURNAL" before. 
In GERMAN Bee JOURNAL 2/2012 could be published for reasons of space only excerpts. 
For a better understanding of my arguments on all relevant points in prey choice here the entire manuscript:




Presentation: Beekeeper prey operation

 
Αs I had seen it from a child with my father I started in 1979 with its own beekeeping. Our equipment consisted of homemade trough hives 

with 16 frames in the size of 27 x 30 cm,  με 16 πλαίσια το μέγεθος των 27 x 30 cm 

 housed in free stalls each with 3 pcs. It was geimkert with semi-high supers and thick honeycomb. Instead of a difference in size of the frames, as is common today, but back then was filled from time to time existing space with Srohmatten.


Since I could hardly walk with these booties I had my early 90s 

Zander foam booties with 9 hexagons each frame into buying.

 Despite intensive efforts, I could not cope with this loot system. The brood chamber was much too large for the performance of the Queen. 

The large amount of pollen that was stored in the brood chamber promoted severity of the swarm pleasure. 

Η μεγάλη ποσότητα γύρης που ήταν αποθηκευμένη στο γονοθάλαμο  προώθησε τη σμηνουργία!!!!!!!!!

The fencing was right on the frames. The bees were able to overcome just above the narrow streets of this honeycomb "obstacle".

With the matching bees distance of 6-8 mm in Dadant the bees can easily reach the honey super on the entire grid area and are not forced their "cargo" filed in the brood chamber, which leads to a narrowing of the brood nest and thus to increased swarm mood. !!!!!!!!!

In 1997, I then (then 60 people) changed the entire beekeeping on the modified Dadant system(σύστημα τροποποιημένης Νταντάντ).

 In the brood chamber 12 frames + difference in half - high honey honeycomb chamber 10. 
Στην γονοφωλιά 12 πλαίσια και στον μελιτοθάλαμο(μισό πάτωμα) 10 πλαίσια προφανώς με διαχωριστή πλαισίων


From then on it went uphill. Revenues increased far beyond the usual prey of trough time degree, I had less work and was finally able to successfully migrate. 

Similar to earlier in the trough booties brood chamber was adapted to the condition of the people and the performance of the Queen.
In Dadant the empty space behind the difference for the bees is not closed is not busy !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!with illegal building remains completely free and is used during the trek as a drum room.

Spring development 

In the spring of the peoples are concentrated after cleaning then flight to the minimum necessary number of honeycomb. The bees must be able to besiege and warm all the cells in the brood chamber completely even in cold weather setbacks. The teaching space is limited with a difference. Only taken honeycomb with uneaten food made up for the release of the honey space for clearing behind the difference. The growing brood nest is supplemented as necessary by drone frame and center panels. 

By properly adjusting the breeding area, the bees in my experience

 their "living room"  better air-conditioned, 

the people develop better in the spring, 

the bees are more durable and powerful.

 adapted BR - extended left with drone frame(προέκταση αριστερά με κηφηνοκηρήθρα) and to position 2 and 3 with center panels)


Development brake split brood chamber 

Go to "feel" the Bien's heard in my experience that, especially in the spring brood ball is not hindered by unnecessary Rähmchentrennung on the expansion.

By top carrier, bees and subcarrier spacing of the upper edge of the box and not incubated honeycomb beginnings arise when shared brood box about 5cm separation!!!!!!!!!!!,

 a disaster!!!!!! for the continuous development of the brood nest, 

which this season has the shape of a sphere.  η οποία αυτή την εποχή έχει το σχήμα μιας σφαίρας

To benefit fully air-conditioned save the bees   in the region of the honeycomb transition easily from hatching until the edge of the spherical shape has overcome the separation.

This saved bee brood is simply missing and thus influences negatively the development of the following Biens over several breeding cycles. επί αρκετούς κύκλους αναπαραγωγής .

The better spring development was clearly confirmed by experts. (U. A. Gerd Stammler German Bee Journal 10/04 page 14) 


Optimal allocation of a brood-comb Dadant  Βέλτιστη κατανομή του γόνου

In winter the brood ball sits under the honey wreath on the same honeycomb, can spread to the upper support and then also extend to the back of rising temperatures in the spring. 

The newly registered honey is stored directly in the first honey super.


Το πρόσφατα συλλεγμένο μέλι αποθηκεύεται απευθείας στο πρώτο μελιτοθάλαμο .

Around the beginning of May, the entire honeycomb is then filled with brood.

Pollen stock Απόθεμα γύρης

When I Dadant by properly adjusting the honeycomb number and differentiation achieved by the difference that no more than a honeycomb with pollen is substantiated as too much of a pollen stock greatly increases the swarm pleasure. 

The bees will continue to maintain the planned level of well-matched in number brood combs,

but reduce the pollen storage. αλλά μειώνουν την αποθήκευση της γύρης.

In double brood chamber Zander bees put on a ton of pollen stock that constricted the brood nest in effect and thus greatly promoted the swarm pleasure. προώθησε σε μεγάλο βαθμό την ευχαρίστηση σμηνουργίας .

Since scientific evidence of the amount of the registered pollen has no direct influence on the breed extent, 

the bees do not need a large stock in my opinion.

In just over 30 years, I've never seen that bees restrict the breeding due to lack of pollen.

Adoption of honey space 

With the progressive development of the bees in the Dadant stretch her brood on the great brood combs to the upper support. The result of the brood combs as Zander no honey cap that prevents the bees often adopt the honey super.

This honey bees cap set at Dadant immediately above the Barrier in the honey super, since where the beekeeper can then reap.

So it is only possible to harvest this year as a delicious breakfast costume honey before the onset of flowering rape. 

Specific additions of building frame and   Means the walls brood volume increases steadily until around mid-June

Swarming season 

The swarm control is when you lift the Dadant given to date honey spaces and acceptance of Absperrgitters by dragging individual honeycomb. 
There the difference is pushed to the side, making room for gentle release of the first honeycomb. This is the drone with me. In most cases, can be connected to the drone swarm mood already seen. If it contains a lot of open brood and eggs but no (game) cups, I assume that no swarm mood prevails.

This still uncertain state of knowledge corresponds approximately to as a "tilt control" in the divided brood chamber. The time required is both hives still about the same.

significant differences :

However, should show swarm mood, the differences are serious: 

When you split the brood box stall prevention is terminated, that is, close the brood chamber again, pick up the honey super, remove the fencing, divide the brood chamber and again, depending on the design, control frames 18-22 and break the swarm cells.

Are the bees only "annoyed" and restless or even aggressive? 

Existence, however, the drone is some distance placed back into the incubator space at the abgerückte difference and still controls about three brood combs at Dadant for control of the drone doubt.

 Since the drone as Randwabe attracts the queen cells magically I can make a secure judgment to me now.

If there are cultivated cells, the entire brood chamber (that is the only time 7-9 combs) controlled and broke all cells. 

The drawn combs are immediately placed on the last drawn back, so that between the already controlled honeycomb and still "virgin" always results in a gap.

After completion of the control of the entire honeycomb block is pushed as a whole to its original position.

This approach ensures an extremely gentle and fast processing without even a bee is crushed.

Moreover, no device for the parking of the honeycomb is required.
For me is very important: The bees hardly feel disturbed and place without interruption continued flight operations.

Heavy labor: Stall Prevention 

Is also concern that the swarm-tilt control heavy labor means that the second and possibly already patched third Honigraum is removed. The brood chamber plus belassenem first Honigraum may 40 - weigh 50 kg. This weight before and to push back so it does not slip off the Knew should be increased to 45 ° and keep it to squat to give smoke and twist your neck to see wells in the upper brood chamber is already a circus mature number.

And all this only to discover a dangerous trend. As I lift you prefer the honey spaces from which at Dadant only max ever. 18 kg weigh, and can directly make a reliable diagnosis and break all the cells in the same operation.

And I have saved a lot of time. The swarm control, including any swarm prevention of an apiary of 12 nations, including applicable additional work such as widening or insert a bee escape for honey extraction takes me no longer than one hour.

Is the Bien prey matter? 

In my experience, even the Bien must be adapted to the prey and operation itself. When breeding, therefore, must be continually selected under the particular circumstances anticipated. What is essential is the prey with the corresponding operation. 

Each source may only under the conditions in which they bred and by which they were selected to show their true qualities.

Peoples propagation 

The economic nations are generally not being ripped off because we need the bees in summer dress.

To offshoot education only "weaklings" completely dissolved. Around the middle of the Rapsblüte   Just send an offshoot brood comb to education, which is occupied about 2/3 of hatching. After addition of a slip-mature precious cell and proper care, these young people develop into complete by autumn   Economic peoples.

To increase peoples are created primarily by the Linde harvest artificial swarms with me.

Integrated requeened and varroa reduction 

Regarding "Varroa" I see in the different prey systems no serious difference.

Economic nations, I understand at the beginning of Linde dress the Queen. After about 4-6 days is re beweiselt with a slip-precious mature cell. In addition to the renewal of the Queen, this results in an optimum time for the varroa reduction. Because after the emergence of the "old" Brut and the first lidding the "new" breed there are some days not capped brood in the people, so that the Varroa can be very effectively reduced with an oxalic acid solution. 

This damage to the brood by the aggressive formic acid is prevented.
   
Different Wabenmaß in brood and honey room 

The greatest advantage of the semi - high Honigraum is its weight. With max. 17-18 kg, it is "easy" to move relative.

Due to the low height is to interfere with the early spring build possible without the heat balance of the Biens serious for a an early touchdown. On the other hand, the low Honigraum facilitates the extraction of varietal honey. 

In mass costumes like this year in the acacia or 2009 in the Linde(φλαμούρι) had in honey space as experienced up to 90 kg of fresh honey be accommodated.

Then the beekeeper is forced, whatever prey he used in "eye level" set up. This is with a semi - high Honigraum "simple"   to accomplish.




The brood chamber is as the name says in my operation intended for breeding.

There are at Dadant   no good reason   to swap rooms or honeycomb with each other.

Honey quality 

It is very important for me that honey is harvested only from non-incubated honeycombs. This tastes natural and not according to the "legacy" of bee brood. 

If persistent costume other necessary honey spaces are placed above each.

 In any case, the empty frames may be placed under the already registered honey as the bees then at cooler temperatures the honey can not besiege enough and the water content increases thereby.

Since then, I adhere to this principle I can still thick honeycomb honey in room no problems with high water content of honey.

Honeycomb change 

Due to the strong concentration of the breeding area in early spring about half of the honeycomb is excreted in each year.

Are complemented then existing brood combs after the last centrifuging by means walls. By then immediately Auffüttern with   liquid feed the bees are causing them to expand for storage of winter food.   

In this context, it is often criticized for working with Dadant with individual cells.   However, this is not negative, as well as all sides need to be prepared and transported. Only the transport of the workshop for apiary is accomplished differently.

Should also be noted that due to the small number of max. 11 brood per colony the cost of building renewal fails significantly cheaper. 

In Honigraum I use the honeycomb 2 - 4 years without hygienic concerns. You are unbebrütet and in the time of Varroa reduction in the honeycomb storage.

Another advantage of the system: all discarded honeycomb covered in early spring to after concentration and can be melted in a relatively weak labor time. As the year continued to fall, to the chagrin of the wax moth, no further Altwaben more.

Honey Harvest 

The semi - high Honigraum(μισό πάτωμα) can be quickly rid the fan of bees, because in the short streets of the honey is tilted area of ​​airflow less entangled than in the comb ways a normal - high frame.

Hike 

For transporting and loading Booty I use a wheelbarrow wheels equipped with hand truck whose cargo area extends under the entire prey.

The loot parts are square and have not only on two sides projecting handles on all sides but ergonomically shaped, milled recessed grip. Thus, the frames can be grasped and stacked depending on the situation from all sides.

Since no components on the 22 mm thick booty wall through which transport capacity is optimally utilized.
 
Prices 

In the acquisition There are hardly any differences. You need at Dadant Although only one brood chamber but surely a Honigraum more. The higher price for the brood chamber and Bruträhmchen is more than compensated by the lower number.
Conversely, if the supers: at Dadant you sure needs a Honigraum more.

I st beekeepers in Dadant difficult? 

The beekeeper must adapt to his prey system. 

However, I have learned that "old hands" in beekeeping are often difficult to do from traditional approaches to distance.   

So it is devastating when made use of other prey systems, corresponding modes are not transferred.

Beginners who still know nothing else, have come here to the slightest difficulty with the loot and their optimal operation clear.

In Dadant the entire brood chamber without major disruption of Biens is fully appreciated in a short time.

All comb ways can be viewed from above. 

The max. 11 honeycomb can be solved very easily and realize there is no "Hoffmann distances" as Zander are used, which are strongly cemented and must be broken literally. In Dadant I use so-called. Upholstery nails are not installed. In general, let Dadant honeycomb without   Removing Tools. 

The simple, fast and reliable appraisal of events throughout the brood chamber is not only interesting for breeders. Even beginners can more easily without the bees take their very pronounced as "information" silent, blame them. " 

When training for Neuimker I am therefore consistently only to the clearly favored me Dadant a fashion all interested parties in the run-up to clear out. The success seems to agree with me. So now could in three years of intensive training, the number of members of our beekeepers' association on 60 beekeepers are doubled.

Relationship with colleagues.

The compatibility of equipment plays a role only in the initial supply of bees. Here, of course, the club is required. The transfer of Art swarms with good bees material should be secured in any club. 

Unfortunately, there are always "special offers" of bees and ausgemustertem material, which is the beginners recommended as optimal equipment.

If the clubs do not open and honestly discuss the arguments presented here, they should not be surprised view that you fly any new members. Especially young people interested in beekeeping people can question these days all the arguments very accurate and easy to see through adherence to outdated settings. 





The content of this page is the manuscript as "GERMAN Bee JOURNAL" before. 

In GERMAN Bee JOURNAL 3/2012 36 excerpts of my manuscript was printed on page. 

Sorry, could also reproduced in this issue for space reasons, the entire design. By geziehlte selection and partially modified Fomulierungen different sections results in a broadly from my point of view, unfortunately, very distorted impression.
So that you can make yourself an objective picture of my contribution here is the complete manuscript 


Enhancement: 

In the spring of the peoples according to the cleaning flight to the then necessarily necessary number honeycomb concentrated. In the first stage, the floor is cleaned, removed unoccupied honeycomb, honeycomb hung with uneaten food for leakage behind the arbitration and the bottom gate is closed. 

By properly adjusting the brood can space the bees her in my experience Living room "air-condition better, the people develop better in the spring. 

At the onset of costume I expand with center walls, structural frame and the first honey super. Since little pollen is stored Hardly any swarm pleasure.


* Hiking 

Sure weigh the individual frames in magazines split brood chamber less. But in all seriousness: Who bears the sides while hiking been individually? With a hand truck can move the Dadantbeuten excellent. 

The honey spaces are of course not decreased. The teaching room next to the difference in the brood chamber is used by the bees as a drum room. 


* Honey quality and harvest: 

It is very important for me, the only honey from non-incubated Honeycomb is harvested. For magazines with the same Wabenmaß in brood and honey space not all beekeepers replace the honeycomb. But at Dadant no one comes into temptation, also the Halbzargen are easier to raise than honey room. The bees fill quickly, so that it is possible unifloral honeys win easily. 


* Honeycomb hygiene: 

Varroa means the residues are cause for me passe '. In Honigraum I use the honeycomb several years without hygienic concerns. 

The brood combs remain max. 3 years in people. 


* Varroa control: 
If one wanted to deal with Amei-sensäure, the evaporator would placed directly on the brood nest. This is how the experience of many colleagues shows. Since I connect the varroa treatment with the renewal of the Queen and so the end of summer had a brood free time, but this is not necessary. 

Something oxalic acid is then sufficient. 

* Umweiseln and strengthen peoples: 
Weaklings are fully resolved to cuttings in spring and new beweiselt with a slip-mature cell. In order to increase the cost I like in the morning costume from different nations strong economy through exchange of occupied spaces honey. Of course I can also Dadant brood boxes for better development of a weakling, separated by fencing, one above the other.

* Late costumes: 
The brood chamber is filled only after the late costume with center walls. Since there are already people in the young queens maintain these vital to autumn extensive breeding nests, leave little room for the deposition of honey in the brood chamber adapted. As a result, a spin of the large brood is unnecessary.

* Scientific evidence: 
Sorry neutral comparisons were made to my knowledge never, in which the operation and characteristics of various Bienenherkünfte were considered. In this context, I imagine, for example, the question may be a "scientist" who applies certain Booty under his name assess a completely different system neutral?


In the German-Bee Journal 10/04 Gerd Stammler declared undivided brood chamber: .... The people developed particularly in spring faster and more effectively has bee .......
To think also gives me that now offer all the leading manufacturers loot your systems with 1 ½ high breeding areas and correspondingly large frames. 

* Outlook:
For the sake of the next generation beekeeper, I hope that all contribute to an open, honest, and comradely to discuss the most important issues in the beekeepers bee-hive-operation.Starting in the clubs, through associations, bees institutions and science to the journals. 


Comments on the prey comparison of the German Bee Journal

Comment by Udo Schimmelpfennig u.schimmelpfennig at sauerlandimkerei.de

Pro and Contra-roomed brood chamber
To dbj 03/2011 p.37

Brood chamber better shared

The report of Dr. Aumeier suggests that nothing is easier than the colony management in 2 breeding areas. But the popular set of her "then the beekeeper done something wrong" proves that even in split brood chamber, not everything is as smooth as described.

In severe food rings in the upper brood chamber bees tend to ignore the honey room and store the nectar entry from the early flow below. Here, the beekeeper must in time by taking food and honeycomb hanging empty combs or center walls move the brood up ... including "honeycomb bee"?

The honeycomb lining to form the Begattungsableger come from the surplus of the peoples, to individual honeycomb must be moved and replaced by others.Without a "honeycomb bee" it is not so, -the Dadantimker not moved in the spring at the expansion of the brood combs more!
However, he has no problems mounting the honey spaces, which of course is done through magazines, not by "honeycomb bee". Among other advantages, it is also an advantage to whole honeycomb honey in the room when he wants to make his honey bees rooms free by blowing.
The real problem in bipartite brood chamber but the extension of single-spaced wintered peoples. At a time where Dadantvölker the brood chamber is already collect surplus honey in the room doubled and extended the brood nest, at a huge cost of returns. By "stepping down" trying recently to compensate for this disadvantage. It is ignored that the "stepping down" during the 1970 "not useful" evaluated by scientific studies of Alborzi in Hohenheim. Therefore, it was in Hohenheim "touchdown" a maxim. If one is now, 40 years later, returns to the old braids just another testament to the operational drawbacks and compromises in zweigeteiltem brood chamber in conjunction with one-roomed winter.
A Dadant- brood chamber of such operational considerations free, the people of a custom brood chamber is provided, honey spaces as needed, that's it!

"What a hassle!" (??) This statement ignores the fact that this system was practiced by a man who is dubbed by many respectfully known as the "greatest of all time beekeeper".Visitors praised above all to the smallest "clever" rationality of beekeeping at Buckfast.
After credible eyewitness reports brother Adam has aged more than 80 years by seen in one day 100 people. Granted, not everyone who works with the Dadant- system, but makes it clear that the system can not be so expensive and impractical, as it is often represented in certain circles.
Who also in the much-vaunted tilt control before the honey super is rattled down, which will pick up the room like honey before tilting, the advantage of tilt is relative then. The sliding bar of Hohenheim Easy prey to prevent this, but not only has advantages.
So everything has two sides, only one should call them. The statement that the amount of pollen does not depend on the number of breeding areas is neither practical nor observations scientific investigations. Quote from the work "Pollen nutrition and development of honey bees Part 2" of the Liebefelder Institute: "(It) has been demonstrated that the collecting activities (the pollen foragers) is also controlled by the size of the empty storage space in the nation (Keller, Fluri, Imdorf 2005). This empty pantry is in the two-part brood chamber, especially in Ganzzargen greater than in Dadant- brood chamber. Seeley 1995 writes that bee colonies create a modest stock of about 1 kg, and is large enough to feed a nation well for a longer period of bad weather (Seeley, Thomas D. "honey bees in the microcosm of the hive", Birkhauser Verlag Basel Boston Berlin S . 251). Next page 274: "In order to effectively collect, a bee colony has its collectors from collecting pollen and nectar collecting divide as it corresponds to its nutritional needs". In simplified denominator: If more pollen foragers activated, as to the real needs, which comes at the expense of nectar-gathering power, which negatively reflected in the level of harvest. Is it any wonder then, if it is reported by Brother Adam, that he threw full pollen honeycomb rage over large pollen stores behind the bushes? This gifted breeder stayed on properties whose importance is now aware of the very few. This is due to the "holistic" method of Zargenimkerei split-brood chamber, where such niceties go under.
The question "Pro and Contra-roomed brood chamber" is too diverse to answer them with simple platitudes such as "Every race can live in every box" can. For this purpose, a report by Klaus Fehrenbach on comparative tests between Buckfast- and Carnika- peoples, both groups were kept in Langstroth and Dadantkästen. He comes to the conclusion not pre-planned: "Taking into account the performance of the Carniolan in Dadant, so, for me, the question of whether one rather than in the future according to the" better "bee not make more sense after" should look better "prey?

(Klaus Fehrenbach, "Carnika and Buckfast compared" Lecture Bavarian Breeders Meeting, February 26, 1994, Nuremberg, Germany).

At that time, his question without echo is, now it is re-raised by the "Bee Journal," but they will probably never be answered objectively at preconceptions.
u.schimmelpfennig at sauerlandimkerei.de


  Letter to the editor: Horst Wall Buschkötter to the German Bee Journal 

Simple beekeepers 

Dr. Aumeier had featured in the March issue of their operation by the two-part brood chamber impressive. 

With the split-brood chamber I personally have "much too long" time-consuming and therefore uneconomical geimkert (Hohenheim since 2005 Zander Easy prey). 

Since 2010 I have changed my operation to the one-piece nesting chamber (Dadant- Buckfast).

 The reasons that led to the one-piece nesting chamber, were as follows: 

1. With the Kippkonrolle I always had problems. As a swarm control, I think they are inadequate and not spared the unspeakable honeycomb pulling the two brood boxes. The Queen is their queen cells also wonderful hide somewhere else. In hiding Bien is especially good when the queen cells have previously been broken before. 

2. Verhonigen the two-part nesting space 

3. Too much pollen boards in the bipartite brood chamber 

4. No custom brood chamber. This significantly favored the aforementioned points 2 - 3. If these points are not corrected by surgery beekeeping, here is usually the barometer to swarm mood. 
5. brood assessment is divided brood chamber clearly better and therefore the efficiency of the kings can (important for an event. Progeny) be better assessed. Also, therefore, renowned breeder Dadant. 
This year I had the pleasure to participate in Soltau in a workshop. The master beekeeper Hans Beer had shown great detail here, the operation "beekeepers in the adjusted Brutram".His key message I would like to quote here: Adjusted brood chamber is the prerequisite seasonal work on bee colony, bee justice carried out with minimum effort. By the single brood chamber all interventions would be carried out at the hive with least interference. 
The beekeepers in One Piece Nesting chamber makes me a lot more fun, because it's easier and better leads to economic success. Back on bipartite brood box I can not imagine from today's perspective. Here I have to pay my dues. 
Horst Wall Koetter, 48157 Münster

Preface to the monthly notices 

Why beekeepers with a brood chamber and large honeycomb?

Dadant modified by brother Adam - 1.5 German normal level - 1.5 Zander



The operation of the one-room space with large brood combs is practiced by me, Werner Gerdes, since about 20 years. 

In many meetings, lectures, discussions, and not least when traveling to beekeepers renowned at home and abroad, this operation has been further developed and is now a standard in modern professional beekeeper. 

In beekeeping training of our association, I will give this mode as the default continues.



The great popularity among beginners who check in other beekeepers associations confirms my efforts to find a modern, timely and tailored to the needs of the bees operation. 

I myself have had many opportunities in talks with beekeepers associations and organizations, including the German bee museum in Weimar, to give my experience with this type of beekeeping on.



The operation was taken over from the monastery Buckfast in its basic features of Brother Adam, is published in many publications. It is limited in addition to building renovation and requeened   essentially as Br. Adam is summed up in his lectures, to the following statements.
  • "The best possible care and supervision of the production colonies" 
  • "The strength of a colony must not be weakened by action of the beekeeper."
  • "Swarm prevention is to be operated primarily by breeding"


    To be able to economically successful beekeepers, the following principles apply to me: 



    K cupping a mass of bees - No offshoot education in the usual sense (The Bees are needed for future costumes. Young people are created after the last centrifuging through artificial swarms.) 

    No breeding distancing (The Bien is torn and harmony among the people is disrupted for weeks). 



    No harvest incubated honeycomb. (The honey tastes better.) 


Already my father, father in law and I know professional beekeepers working with trough booties since the 1950s.

The brood chamber took 16 honeycombs in Kaltbau and was firmly connected to the floor.

The entire honeycomb surface corresponded to that of today's 12er Dadant system.

The size of the brood chamber was doing with a difference (then a straw plate) adapted to the specific needs of Biens.

The honey room was equipped with half-height thick honeycomb. It has been working without safety.

In bees newspapers from the years 1948-1950 the widespread introduction of a single prey was discussed.

 Even then, the Dadant system was discussed.

But since there was no bee would fill this "great" prey, they created the "German Normal Ma ߓ, a calculated average of all frame dimensions then in use. 

This corresponded to current ideas of those responsible (German-normal uniform as during   propagated the "brown" past). 

But unfortunately it corresponded not the claims of Biens a welfare home.

The greatest lie of this system, therefore, is his name. It is not normal. 

My final choice of the Dadant system fell after the observation of a strong swarm of bees, which built its honeycomb under one roof overhang. 

There were not many small but only 6 very large honeycomb.
Enjoy reading my detailed monthly observations for operation with a large brood chamber adapted to wish you

Werner Gerdes

to the monthly notices 

January - February - March - April - May - June - July _ August - September - October - November - December 

January:    Rest for bees and beekeepers

January is the classic winter month. However, the temperatures often fluctuate significantly. Thus, freezing temperatures down to -15 ° C in the same month with "warm" + 5 ° C to 10 ° C may alternate. In addition, rainfall, sometimes bring to 40 cm of snow.

Last Chance to varroa reduction
In general, the beginning of January still opportunity to reduce the Varroa infestation. The people do not have capped brood in multiply the mites again. On the varroa reduction, I would like to address in detail within the month view. It differs by either prey systems are still operating modes. That is why I refer all questions to the varroa reduction to the brochure "Varroa control". It gives answers to all questions that arise for Varroa problem.

Open mesh floor
Relatively uniform temperatures do bees well. Therefore, they cuddle up in the winter cluster closely together and keep the core temperatures of about 20 ° C. In order to prevent an early breeding approach I hibernate all the nations with an open mesh floor. I avoid any hot packing the peoples. The bees are used by nature a downwardly open nest site. Namely they do not heat their entire home, but form a ball with the smallest possible surface.   Only the inner ball this heat the bees. In this case, change the outside sitting animals that isolate this ball with their bodies, with the ever-seated inside Heizbienen.
For hygiene reasons, a grid floor is also useful. There is no mold, since air circulates throughout. So the winter runs quieter and the nations will come vital spring.
Start of the breeding business - food supply
For larger heat periods, the peoples increase the breeding scope, and uniform temperature until the middle of January, the first brood cells are maintained.
Once the first brood is maintained rises inside the winter cluster the temperature to 35 ° C. This leads to an increased feed consumption. Because the bees produce heat by shivering with the flight muscles in the uncoupled wings. For this they need energy in the form of carbohydrates.
The bees cluster migrates to the honeycomb slowly behind the still existing feed. In re cold spells but the grape remains to protect the existing breeding this nest. As a result, lose the connection to the feed the animals. The people would starve to death in spite of sufficient reserves.
To prevent such damage, I already look briefly at the end of January the lid. So I know where the bees cluster sits and where the food is. If the people sitting on one side of the floor and the food on the other hand, I gather a remote Futterwabe and place it directly to the bees. So I have without disturbing the bees large, prevented a possible starvation.

No false consideration
I want to encourage all undertake urgent measures needed even in unfavorable seasons. Although each disorder hibernation results in some loss due to injury, Verkühlen and unrest with increased feed consumption and its consequences such as defecation in the floor, Nosema or other diseases. But this is still better than a complete failure due to starvation with existing food.

Uninvited guests
At the apiary itself no further work is required except controls. Even snowed hives are no problem thanks to the open grid floor for the bees. The flight holes are always open for me. By the design of the soil results from my hives a max. 8 mm high flight slot. By this gets no different animals, such as mice, in the booty


  Work in January:
·        Level sensors
·        Possibly Varroa reduction
·        When uncertainty feed control
·        Maintenance of equipment
·        Education and planning for the coming season

ΦΛΕΒΑΡΗΣ

 February: Is winter over?   
                                           
The first flight cleaning complete the bees usually in February. So they have completed their wintering. Maintain the first brood and resolve with appropriate heating of the nature of their winter grape on. The vesicle of droppings of animals is plump. Under favorable conditions, the bees do their "business" in the first cleaning flight. It may happen, however, that they strongly verkoten the entrance hole and the front of the spoils. This does not look nice, but is not tragic. Worse, when the bees within the hive and defecation on the combs is. Peoples whose honeycombs are very dirty, removed immediately from the state. They are beyond saving. If it is not, the hives shall be immediately sealed. Otherwise rob other people sick neighbors soon and plug in.
Without the people to disrupt large I lead in February by a first control. A quick look under the lid provides information quickly about conditions in the booty.

Are the people healthy and Weisel right?
The bees should sit quietly on the combs. Howl Restless suggests queenless. Then mark the people for future intensive monitoring.

If the food supply is secured?
Wee Folk sometimes tear on the lining. When brooding already and need to keep the heat required for breeding, they easily lose the connection to the feed honeycomb. Without the people to take apart and disrupt large, I hang a Futterwabe directly to the bee fit. A balance of food supply among the nations we also achieved by appending filled honeycomb.


Is geogrid free?

In heavy winter deaths case significant amounts of dead bees collect on the floor. To help the bees, one raises the brood chamber behind something. So the dead animals fall out through the open entrance hole and the bottom is roughly cleaned. 


A first intensive review of the peoples will take place in March in our region. The beekeeper does not have time to deal with preparations for the upcoming season.
Working in February:
  • Keep calm and wait patiently for the great awakening.
  • Disturbing Initial control of peoples without the bees.
  • Secure food supply.
  • Floor grilles and air slot free.
  • Remove dead and diseased people of the state.

March: great Spring Awakening 

Our beehives are in a difficult reconstruction phase. On the one hand it is still cold, on the other hand raises the temperature rise of all spirits. The people have a remarkable brood nest. This must be the bees warm even in freezing temperatures to 35 ° C. This takes a lot of energy, ie winter fodder, because of the nature are no significant nectar entries. The consumption of food is in March at about 5 kg. Here, the beekeeper must be vigilant and may provide for compensation. Ideal for emergency cover over the filled honeycomb lining of peoples who are excessively supplied. Also feeding paste, which is just across the occupied honeycomb and is covered with foil, take the bees on this time of year. However, they are characterized additionally loaded. Because you need water in order to process the Feedbee



For the first major review of the peoples of the time should be chosen with care.

  • The weather has already brought several airplane days.
  • The bees carry an abundant pollen.
  • The temperatures allow to work without a "winter clothes".
  • This date may - depending on weather conditions - from mid-February to late March are.


First I clean the floor. When winter Hang Loose and dry lies on the grid, I sweep the floor clean only. Otherwise, I put the brood chamber completely to the side and change the ground. 

If mold has formed and the dirt is difficult to remove, clean and I disinfect the floor. For this I wash it with either 2%   Sodium hydroxide solution or dry cleaned floor from the flame to the burner. Also I do with all the loot parts that are not in use, before returning to collect bees.



In reviewing one should be very careful with honeycomb occupied. The bees are tight on the combs and fall upon separation in clumps on the floor. You have a hard return it to the people. Should the Queen be there soon, there is the highest alert level in the nation. 

Occupied bee I prefer, therefore, only if the suspicion of queenless there. Such people are restless and cry at the slightest vibration on. Weisel lots of folks are to unite this time of year with other nations. Unless you have a spare queen. The association with a queenright people   prepares the bees no problem. The queen lots are again happy to have a boss. The addition of queens in an orphan colony is only successful as long as no drone brood is maintained.



Drone or humpback breeding

A special feature is the humpback or Drohnenbrütigkeit. The nations behave outwardly normal but only maintain drone brood. Such people are not able to survive. In order to save at least the bees the prey is removed. The bees I sweep in aviation weather, Minim least 10 m away from the original site of the honeycomb in the grass.The flight bees begging in a neighboring peoples. The "Drohnenmütterchen" are not able to fly and die.



Weak but healthy little people

If at first sight find a very weak people I check if the queen is in order. A nation that is not occupied at least 3 comb ways not create a costume to become capable people and should be resolved.
In order to support a weak but healthy people with good queen in the development, I put it on Barriers to another strong people. The weakling I leave only the honeycomb which already contain some brood and as edge honeycomb I give each a well-stocked Futterwabe. This honeycomb block is limited with the difference to the empty room.
The two queens in this "program" to develop a kind of competition and increase your egg production. By rising heat and evasive up young bees, the top people apparently developed more quickly than the lower.
After at least 4 weeks before breeding larger circles hatch, the former "weakling" re-erected separately and then treated like other comparable nations. If you wait too long with the separation often disappears a queen and all efforts were in vain.


The "heart" of our operation: the adjusted brood chamber 

The essential and authoritative work on application   our operation is the concentration of the peoples in the spring to the absolutely necessary brood number followed by gradually expand by individual agents walls (see monthly observation of April)



The adjusted brood chamber 

The adjusted to the colony strength brood chamber favors the thermoregulation within the honeycomb construction and promotes the development of the brood nest.In addition, the beekeeper is forced to dispose of the Altwaben and replace it later train to train by means walls.


In this first engagement of the year in the honeycombs of bees all not fully occupied combs are removed. Basically I remove both sides at least two edge honeycomb.Excluded are already occupied with brood combs. 

The removal of the outer honeycomb is the block of honeycomb were hired last year as a means walls obtained. It will be automatically removed via the honeycomb year. Thus, a honeycomb change every 2 years until max. Guaranteed 3 years automatically. 



 Dadant brood chamber after winterkill 



 the same brood chamber according to the "Customize" 

DieWaben 1, 2, 9,10,11 (from right) were removed 

In principle, only so many honeycomb should remain that the existing colonies completely fill these even in cool weather. The untreated combs are moved to a prey page in the block. The arrangement with neighboring honeycomb is maintained. This order can not be changed. A new compilation of the honeycomb would the heat balance significantly interfere with all the negative effects on development in spring. 



The difference
The difference may be a thin wood panel made ​​of waterproof glued plywood or a food bag. It marks the end of the honeycomb construction for unfilled space. 

 Completion of the brood combs with the arbitration

BeeSpace
Also the difference to the bee-distance (BeeSpace) are respected by 8 mm all around. The difference is outside the same extent as the Bruträhmchen. As a result, the bees appears the brood chamber as a cohesive unit. But you have the option around this conclusion to reach the teaching space behind the difference unhindered.However, you feel in your breeding compartment so well that may temporarily rather form supernumerary bees among the honeycomb a cluster than to spend time behind the difference.


Grid floor and insert plate
The grid floor remains open with me almost all year round. Only at the time of Varroa reduction I push a control panel under the grid.
In the spring after the cleaning air and cleaning the floor I lay a thin sheet of plywood under the Bruträhmchen on the floor grating so that the bees can amount it and keep it clean.

 Cover plate on the floor grid

On a plate under the grid floor, the Gemüll would collect and become a breeding ground for wax moth.
This insert plate should cover about three-quarters of the soil. It is only the optimum conditioning of the brood chamber and not as a diagnostic diaper.

The bottom grid behind the difference among the white space should remain as free as possible. The bees use it there for ventilation of rooms honey 

Empty space behind the difference

The empty space behind the difference, I use this time to the bees feed remains the removed honeycomb offer for you to change. For this, the cell covers are torn on the removed honeycomb with the stick chisel and another hung the honeycomb by a large margin behind the difference. The bees contribute a relatively short time, the lining of the honeycomb outside the closed apartment (so the bees perceive their completed by the arbitral honeycomb block) and store it near the breeding again.This provides such an early nectar flow for increased breeding start and thus to a more rapid development in spring.



An advantage of the adapted breeding area

An advantage of our operation with the adapted brood chamber is that after concentration and possible portages of uneaten food stand by the bees all excess and thus discarded honeycomb the year in a very short time for melting available. 
Food supply

In addition to ensuring the food supply of the beekeeper can do little in March. He waits until the first major breeding circles slip. Until then, the number of bees decreases. Because it kills more than Altbienen young bees hatch. 


When this stage is overcome and the weather brought the bees costumes, the people must be extended. This can already be the end of March, but can also - depending on weather conditions and costume ratio - continue until about mid-April. 

Working in March
·        Cleaning the floor prey
·        first major review of
·        take care of "weaklings"
·        Concentration of the bees seat
·        Attaching the drone
·        leave about 5-6 kg food
·        Leave uneaten food dish out behind the difference
·        Meltdown Altwaben

April


Back in March, the people were concentrated on the necessary number of honeycomb. The untreated honeycomb should be after the cleaning air completely besieged in cold weather by bees. It is important to make sure that 6-7 kg food are present on the untreated honeycomb as a reserve.


Work on the colonies in April: 

The bees accomplish this season peak performance. The wintered bees must make people to dress strength from its reserves. The bees feel the constriction in March, the completion of the remaining honeycomb packet by the arbitration and the cover of the grid floor very well. Register a few combs that can occupy fully comfortable than many honeycomb at the time in the brood chamber, they do not occupy due to the still small number of bees and therefore can not be air-conditioned.






The development of the colony from the small wintered people to the powerful and mature costume Spring people is clearly much faster progress in this operating mode.



Forage reserve

Of course, in the performance that accomplish the nations now, a lot of energy. The food reserves must therefore be ensured. The Buckfast bee has the property not set their breeding business in the absence of costume and running out continuous feed reserves. This is partly the better performance compared to other origins. But there is also the danger that Buckfast people starve faster. To prevent this, the people, must always have a food reserve of 4-5 Kg available.


The first center panel - where to go?

As Soon As   the first major breeding areas hatch, grow the peoples and should be expanded. You get when they occupy the edge honeycomb good and the Bautrieb awakens, the first center wall.
As for me, the people sitting on the right side of prey, left the class room with the arbitration was deferred in March, I present the first center wall in the alley between the second and third honeycomb right. This may also be placed between then already existing brood, Whereas the peoples expand in above-mentioned conditions immediately and incubate. More resources walls are later also set at this point. This results throughout the expansion in the season, a honeycomb block of newly built honeycomb, the remains of the people at the constriction next spring. Thereby, the rhythm of 2, max. 3 years all brood combs against middle walls replaced.


Drone frame

In Dadant brood chamber the bees enough for a whole frames for establishing Drohnenbau.
the drone frame is hung to the left of the brood combs, directly in front of the difference for me. The frame is there quickly adopted as the bees want to consider staying at the onset of drones costume.


Position and importance of the drone in the "Adjusted brood chamber"

The arrangement of the drone frame as the last honeycomb before the arbitration has several advantages.
1. The bees lay next to the drone when it is outside the brood stock of no pollen. The subsequent frames are exclusively occupied by breeding. This results in a closed brood nest, which extends to the opposite Randwabe.

2. When pollen stock only the last honeycomb to serve in the booty wall. This prevents unnecessary swarm pleasure. (More on this in May)

3. The drone allowed next to the difference very quickly without the control Bien disturbing. Since the drone swarm cells can magically attracts you here already read very effective possible swarm mood

4. With this arrangement, the drone outside before the arbitration is allowed, the entire brood chamber "control". (More on this under "Expand)

In the drone is to make sure that the drone brood on both sides of the distance to the last honeycomb and the difference by about 3 mm must be greater than in a normal brood comb.The larger, prominent drone brood would otherwise cause the cells would be shortened at the last brood comb and then not incubated. The shorter cells were covered with pollen and thus destroy the principle of "Adjusted brood chamber". For any storage of pollen in the brood area automatically leads to "increase the swarming"


Exploit the Altwaben

At the onset of the honeycomb costume that were made in March with food remnants behind the arbitral are now removed. The bees are not a food that may be converted still wear store on the honeycomb. It much less than from the centrifuging in the honey. 
This means that all honeycomb taken from the nations now ready for smelting. As the year progressed fall in this mode, no more Altwaben. Since there is not any day in April flying weather, are attracted to such days also in this work by the scent of melting wax and the food remains still contained no bees. This allows unobstructed outdoor work

 
Once a year, melt Altwaben and clean frames


Honigraum

At the onset of the first costume Honigraum already has to be (always fencing) attached. Catch the bees only to store the registered honey in the brood combs, they take the honey room from poor and other honey in the brood combs they close the brood nest a strong. This also makes the swarming impulse is conveyed unnecessarily. Experience has shown that swarm willing nations have concentrated their brood always plenty of honey and pollen in the brood combs. Through timely placement of the honey space at right "adapted brood chamber" that instinct of bees is not given the space.

Due to the low ½ high Honigraum the prey is not as serious expanded that the bees could not air-condition the space available.
The first honey Rooms I equip alternately from 6, already prepared in the winter of me, half-developed honeycomb and 4 means walls.
If there are no developed honeycomb present, the honey room can be completely filled with medium walls. Then it can happen, however, that the bees Illegal building between the centers build walls, since the distance of the middle walls is larger than the usual in the brood chamber 35 mm. This follows from the fact that in honey room only 10 square honeycomb have (brood chamber 12 possible).
For the beekeeper, this results in a significant labor savings. Critics claim that the water content of the honey would thus be higher. Compliance with my operation but this is not true.
The honey spaces are always placed in my Warmbau. This means that all honeycomb to the part about the existing brood. Only that portion of the honey space is drawn at even lower overall temperatures in the air-conditioning of prey. The left part of the honey space is above the free part of the brood chamber (the left behind the difference). Only when the brood chamber has reached its final size growing number of bees is used for storing honey as the bees only involve the whole booty in the air conditioning her apartment the entire width of the honey space.


Additional funds in the brood chamber walls

With further increase in the bee population means more walls may need to be given according to the growth of the breeding range. However, additional resources walls are only required if all the brood combs are full (in the corners) occupied by breeding before the apple blossom and maintained on the Randwabe brood.
I give the central walls always individually. This is a little time consuming but it suppresses the development of swarm mood considerably, because 21 days later hatch and the young bees at intervals corresponding to the hanging walls of the center. This does not result in a sudden large jelly jam, which again the   Swarm mood would inevitably increase.


Number of brood combs during the season

The last center wall is given about the time of the apple blossom. The number and position of the brood is then maintained throughout the season. The people sitting depending on power of the Queen to 7-9 brood combs. The space behind the difference remains free. Nor shall a center wall are called "reserve" hooked here. Only if a very powerful queen is still investing outside on the Randwabe worker brood yet given a more central wall.

anbepasster brood chamber: after Eiengen in March with 2Mittelwänden and before the arbitration expanded with the drone frame.

More honey spaces

If persistent costume and more than half filled Honigraum the next honey is given space. This is set to the last patch always on top. By a false "stepping down" would air conditioning for the bees in cool weather problem, and as a result, the water content in honey would probably increase significantly.


Swarm prevention

I write to swarm prevention in May closer. In well-selected Buckfast queens and the above-described operation I have in April, never found even with the best development in spring with good rape costume swarm mood.

Working summarized at the grassroots in April: 

Check lining 

Concentrating on still required honeycomb number 

Expand by individual agents walls 

Placing the first honey space always Barrier 

Remove Altwaben from the teaching space behind the difference 

From now on, keep the space behind the difference in free 

Meltdown Altwaben 
Give more resources walls individually 
If necessary give more honey Facilities 

ΜΑΙΟΣ

 

Mai: abundance in nature




In early May is completed by winter people summer people the changeover. The early flow provides the bee food in abundance. This increases the fertility of the colony and wakes up the reproductive instinct. There are well maintained large amounts drone brood. The period of rearing young queens has come and the swarm begins. 
Once at the Dadantbeuten the first Honigzarge is well half full, the next possible equipped with some means walls above is placed.
By this term, expand with supers, a Verhonigen the brood chamber and the fact the awakening swarming is prevented.

Passive swarm prevention: expand enough 
A decisive factor for swarming is the space in the hive. When dadant hive this is not a problem. Due to the limitation in the brood chamber, the construction zone and the area for the processing of honey in the upper Honigzargen shift. A lot of the young bees that build in the Honigzargen honeycomb, look after the work-up and maintenance of nectar and storage of honey are continuously stripped from the brood chamber.



Swarm of inertia: can only be achieved through intensive selection in culturing
In most Beekeeper bee colonies are propagated through swarms or through various methods of swarm anticipation. Queens usually go out of swarm cells. Natural swarms are nursed by feeding. There is hardly noticed if the parent races are breed worthy. A sharp selection on vitality - as in nature - does not take place. This approach is counterproductive, as is indirectly selected to increased swarm of desire. Unfortunately, many "breeders" in the selection of swarm inertia are not very effective.
Through the use of various swarm prevention measures such as breeding distancing between the peoples offshoot etc. can not show the expression of their genetic predisposition. Nations that are observed for the offspring, must not be influenced in terms of their swarm behavior.
Only if there is no intervention in the colony strength and composition can be effectively selected on a small swarm trend.
Since these principles are observed in the Buckfast breed brother Adam, the selection response is particularly high. The situation is different in standbegatteten queens. Here, The influence of the swarm often funny "land bee" noticeable.
There are also so-called swarm years in which there is increased swarming even at Buckfast peoples.



Swarm prevention: control necessary 

At a distance of max. 9 days are checked for swarm cells peoples. Here are all queen cells, regardless of whether they contain eggs or larvae already destroyed. (A swarm would only go off when after 9 days min. A queen cell is capped.). Should still be present swarm cells from three consecutive inspections, the mood of the people is not to influence. Then a beautiful, large equipped cell stops, the queen is removed and the people cultivates a new regent zoom.
Since such a queen, however, emerged from the "Schwarmdusel" the people should be umgeweiselt later in the year.



Queen breeding: a must for a successful economic beekeeping
Mated queens should be drawn only from selected colonies and controlled as far as possible.
For more information on breeding in general and our operation in particular under Weisel breeding .



Offshoot: young people as a reserve and expansion
Young people are with me, as a rule, as I in May will not weaken the nations mid-July (the bees are in June / July for Linden -Tracht used), only in the last honey harvest created as artificial swarms (to July more).
Early offshoot can best be create in May. In order not to weaken the economy nations, I will resolve the smallest nations that do not indicate any significant crop completely. When Dadantsystem usually sufficient for the formation of tumors (mid-May) one or two brood combs. The brood in all stages should be about the surface of a Dadant comb.
This branch receives the right and left of the brood per a Futterwabe pollen and honey. This can also be capped honeycomb lining, incurred in March at the constraining economic nations.
The cuttings are created in a normal prey. The Classroom is simply defined with a difference. In order not to lose the flight bees, it is advisable to offshoot min. 1 km from the old location away to set up.
2 - 8 days after the creation of the replicas are beweiselt with slip-precious mature cells. Given the already scheduled Nachschaffungszellen must not be removed, because the precious cell was well prepared to care people and will hatch after 2 days. The only then max. 10 days old "Nachgeschafften" are eliminated from the new regent.
As soon as the young queen in oviposition is the offshoot is extended with individual agents walls. If no costume prevail, as in the first half of June is often the case here, must be fed.
Feeding the cuttings should be done with a thin sugar water (1/1). This means that 1 liter of water max. 1kg sugar. The "thin" food is very quickly absorbed by the bees and stimulates their Bautrieb. The new center wall is removed quickly and placed the food in it. Only in hindsight it is processed, stored inverted and highly concentrated. As a result, many cells are exposed on the new honeycomb, which uses the queen to lay eggs. If the previously given center wall full of food and especially breeding, the next center wall is given and, if necessary, re-fed the people accordingly.
So until the autumn developing a full-fledged nation that occupies the entire brood chamber.



Varroa treatment of cuttings
About 7 - 8 days after the young queen has started oviposition, should the Varroa be fought. At this time, no sealed brood is present can be effectively treated by the mite with small amounts of organic acids (lactic acid or oxalic acid).



End of the early flow: Honey Harvest
After the early flow in us with the withering of rape fields, the registered honey must be thrown. If you wait too long so can crystallize already in the combs of honey because of the high glucose content. Honeycomb with candied honey must be eaten by the bees again (More on this in September.)
Ripe honey, when the bees have reduced the water content below 18%. The honey should not spurt out at a knock sample (fist holding the honeycomb hand). In addition, the honeycomb should be predominantly capped. Certainty is provided by the water content measurement using a refractometer.
The honey extraction is carried out at me with the bees escape. This is inserted in the morning. The bees then at night still opportunity to reduce the water content slightly.   In the afternoon or evening of the same day, the remaining bees are blown or swept from the sides. This type of honey extraction ensures the hive not for excitement, as it is hardly noticed and also performs in traditional costume loose time not to robbery. In addition, the honey from not cool and can be thrown directly without heating 
Working in May:
·        Expand by placing the required Honigzargen
·        Swarm Control and Prevention by breaking out all queen cells
·        Rearing queens
·        Branch formation by breeding offshoot
·        Varroa treatment of cuttings
·        Honey Harvest



 ΙΟΥΝΙΟΣ

  June: The highlight of the bee colony

On 21 June, the sun reaches its highest level. It is the longest day of the year. Our colonies reached in this time its greatest extent, if they have not raved. From this point, the amount of brood walks slowly back - but depending on foraging, weather and bees origin to varying degrees.






Queen rearing 

I n June continues rearing queens started young. Young powerful queens are the backbone of a successful beekeeping. This applies completely independent of the number of colonies for hobby beekeepers. E ach beekeeper needs to know what he needs to "young". 

It is not appropriate to the species, in my opinion, to send a people with a queen unsatisfactory in the winter, when it died miserably. Here it is in the hands of the beekeeper to provide for the welfare of the colony.   This means that you have to have the courage to replace a sick, not optimal performance through a healthy queen queen.






This is a great advantage for beekeepers compared to other pet owners: The fertilized queen carries the entire genetic material of the colony in itself. By exchanging the Queen, the entire genetic material of Biens, without having to replace the entire nation changes.






Costume break

After ejecting the rape honey peoples face in our region a certain costume break. The large bloom is over. Often sets a period of bad weather, the so-called Schafskälte.






Forest honey oak and beech
In recent years there has been a short-term, more or less pronounced forest honey flow from us. To use this, it is useful to rape honey, as soon as it is ripe for the withering of hurling. The forest honey flow can suddenly come to an end. Especially after severe thunderstorms, there is often an abrupt end to the Tautracht. 
If you want to the forest honey fairly "clean" reap must immediately be spun to avoid mixing with the following summer dress.



Forest honey oak and beech
In recent years there has been a short-term, more or less pronounced forest honey flow from us. To use this, it is useful to rape honey, as soon as it is ripe for the withering of hurling. The forest honey flow can suddenly come to an end. Especially after severe thunderstorms, there is often an abrupt end to the Tautracht.
If you want to the forest honey fairly "clean" reap must immediately be spun to avoid mixing with the following summer dress.



Linde costume
To begin June 20 at the Linden us to bloom. In the garb of Linden blossom honey but can not be trusted. In some years, this has completely failed. In other years, the Linde also supply large quantities dew honey. Then the nectar in so-called außerfloralen nectaries on the leaf surface exits. This honeydew production can be so severe that forms a sticky film under the trees. Of these, the bees get but only when the weather is warm and humid appreciable amounts. Often this is the honeydew honey 

International control
The swarming declines during the month and disappears completely at a solstice. However, the swarm mood must still be observed.

Weisel sample

If you are not sure whether an intact Queen is popularly makes you a sample Weisel. Results can be obtained from an intact neighboring people a honeycomb with eggs and open brood. This comb is hung in the middle of the brood chamber of the test people. The empty brood comb hanging on this course, you are the intact people as a substitute. 

After 5 days, check that fed brood comb attached. If it does not Nachschaffungs - queen cells attracted, everything is fine. The people are satisfied with the condition.It has a queen only is not yet possible in oviposition. After a week of this people check again.
However, when queen cells maintained on the Probenwabe the people is been orphaned. Now there are two ways to proceed.
First     If one of the queen of the people from which the sample is satisfied, you can slip a queen on the sample. But you have to make sure that only one queen hatches, which was supplied from an egg directly after hatching with royal jelly. To ensure this is removed, as this may have been only briefly supplied with all manner jelly cells that are already capped after 5 days and any resulting queens were not fully formed. All queen cells that are still open on the 5th day, allowed to stand. These maggots were guaranteed optimal care and can develop into full-fledged, powerful queens. The selection among the untreated cells blasphemous to the people.
. 2     Makes you want to bring another queen in this people, because you are not happy with genetics in the home nation of the sample thus, you wait until the 9th day. Then all the queen cells are broken out and added a new queen.

Requeened in 9 days queenless people
The people in question is taken from the Queen. After 9 days, all the people are capped brood cells. Now all Nachschaffungs-queen cells are broken. Since neither eggs nor open brood are present, the people are hopelessly queenless. In this state, the people take each queen, also foreign origins, willingly. The young queen in a cage with about 5-8 escort bees whose closure is closed by feeding paste added in the brood chamber in the middle.   If you have not themselves breed worthy queen available, you should contact an early breeder of his confidence in connection to the 9th day to have a young queen.

Umweiseln economic nations with queens breeding and integrated Varroa reduction

Around the beginning of the Linden Blossom mid-June, the Queen is taken from the people. After 6 days, you are in a slip-precious mature cell. By the time the young queen oviposition, and the first new brood is capped, the people have no sealed brood for a few days. This condition I use for Varroa treatment. 

These folks build because of the efficiency of the young queen in a very strong winter peoples. Disadvantage: it is not a controlled mating - possible so only Standbegattung and no preliminary examination of the Queen.
Breeding plan with integrated requeened and Varroa treatment in ancient cultures 
Day               Altvolk                              Young Queen
1
Umlarven the precious maggots
2
3
entweiseln
Possibly reacting in foster people
4-5
6
Protecting the cells against obstruct
7-10
11
Verschulen the slip mature cells
12
All capped cells
13
Slip the young Queen
14-20
21
Earliest start of oviposition
22 -25
26
hatched all cells
No capped brood
Varroa treatment
27
No capped brood
Varroa treatment
28
No capped brood
Varroa treatment
29
First capped brood earliest

Working in June:

·        Drag queen

·        Check swarming

·        Weisel ensure accuracy

·        think of requeened

·        may centrifuging of forest honey

·        Customize Honigraum to any summer dress

·        Umweiseln economic nations with queens breeding and integrated Varroa reduction




ΙΟΥΛΙΟΣ

 

July: final Honey Harvest 



The highlight of the year was exceeded with the summer solstice already on 21 June. From then on, the nights are getting longer and the days shorter. Even in our colonies, the transition from spring-like expansion of autumnal contraction takes place. The swarming is extinguished. During the month of July dries up the dress from us. The People's strength is no longer growing and early August begins the transition to winter people.

However, the beekeeper can not be put to rest. On the contrary, the last honey must be harvested in our region in July. With the surplus bees can create beautiful art schools. The Varroa - mite must be fought and due to lack of dress of fodder storage already needs to be complemented 

The last harvest in

To 10 July fade late Linden with us. So that the bees have no appreciable costume for the rest of the year. Since the breeding range is still significant, the peoples every day but consume up to 500g of honey. And people who do not want to gamble, hurls immediately after the end of costume. You can tell this time is best because the bees tend to increased predation. Once a honeycomb with honey scent is freely accessible, it is immediately besieged by foreign bees. While the costume, the bees do not care about a side asked honeycomb. 



Filling the brood chamber

In this last major engagement in the structure of the hive brood chamber to the needs of Biens should be adjusted during the winter. The Bien takes place for the winter ball plus feed storage.

The economy nations are all extended with me on 11 honeycomb. I leave the room for the 12th honeycomb basically free. The arbitration will continue, after the last honeycomb. As a result, always results in the winter half of the year the possibility without much disturbance of Bien honeycomb to be solved by lateral move away.

The brood combs are replenished by means walls, respectively at # 3.



Because the people are fed soon after centrifuging and the bees mass is still quite large, this means walls are removed nor quickly. However, they are not incubated in most nations. This expanded Virgin honeycomb j edoch gladly accepted the n ächsten spring from the Queen. 


The insertion of the middle walls always at # 3 is unnecessary later transferring the developed central walls. A repeated cloaks inevitably results when the center panels are placed directly behind the drone, like other colleagues recommend partially. 

With my method inevitably results in a kontinuielicher honeycomb change, because in the spring the edge honeycomb are taken on both sides and sealed. As appropriate to the means Vohrjahr walls then form the core of the brood nest in the next season.





Decrease in the honey Facilities

The patch in costume and well-stocked honey spaces are removed at harvest and made ​​bee free. Sweeping off each cavity individually solves quickly from robbery.Elegant is to use a bee escape. Through this tunnel alignments try the honey bees from the room down to the Queen to go, but did not find the way back. The bee escape be appealed to me for various reasons in the morning. Firstly, the bees the whole night had time yet to ventilate some moisture out, on the other hand I can on the same day about 6 till 8 hours after inserting the flight already remove the honey spaces. Thus, the honey cools at night not again, is not new to moisture and can be better in a warm state spin. Miscellaneous bees that are still in the supers, can quickly broom or how I do it, blow out.

However, bee escape function poorly when drones are in the honey room and not even when brood is present.


Create artificial swarms

With the decrease in the honey many rooms now suddenly drop to excess bees. This "meat bees" can be used very well to the formation of Art swarms. However, this is the presence of young that are already in oviposition queens.

To create an artificial swarm additional equipment is required depending on the method.

Traditionally, the bees are towed by a large funnel in a box with large lattice space for ventilation. The new queen is hung under-strength lock in the cage under the lid. Fills be about 1.5 - 2 kg bees. For safety, the box is placed on a scale with the funnel. After reaching the weight of the hopper is removed and placed a glass with about 0.5 l of sugar water over the hole. The whole thing is now for at least two more three days undisturbed in a cool and dark room (basement prison). Thereby forming the bees with the new queen a good sense of togetherness and can at the same location in the new home will be "taken" without the bees fly back to their old stock. As with any natural swarm and, besides, the prey is fully equipped with resources walls. The closure of the queen cage is now provided with sugar paste, so the bees can free her new Mistress. 

Who has his prey provided with a complete grid floor, takes place the same Kunstschwarmbox the floor with an empty brood chamber and sends it to a temporary cover, opening for the funnel, the lining glass and the queen cage. In addition, the procedure is as described above. When installing the new site, only the central walls are hung, closed the queen cage and feeding paste the Adamfütterer with the associated n Lid placed.

Who has a second location (at least 1, preferably 2 miles away) available, does removing the honey spaces and the formation of the art swarm in a single operation. I am setting up a new prey forth as follows. Brood chamber filled completely with center walls. In the center the new queen will be attached directly below Zuckerteigverschluss. This booty is the bees escape. It will be 3 - 4 set well occupied with bees honey full rooms and closed with the lid. The whole is lashed with a Wandergurt and moved to a new location. The bees in the supers will quickly feel queenless and escape through the bees escape in the brood chamber to the new queen. The next day the bees now free honey spaces are removed for spinning. Immediately, the Varroa be treated as no sealed brood is present. Since no costume is to be expected, such a swarm is directly fed enough until all occupied honeycombs are well developed. Should not be adequately staffed in the edge region central walls, they are removed after a few days and narrowed the people with the arbitration. I have never experienced in this type of young people education, that the Queen has come in such an event to harm. Why should they? The bees are guaranteed been orphaned, have sucked to calm full of honey and look forward to have the new regent found.

Check quality of Weisel
Of course, the brood chamber is again checked for the presence of a young, efficient and appropriate in all respects our requirements queen now. If we do not like properties of the Queen should be marked for "Umweiseln". Only when the Queen is in every respect the ideas of the beekeeper   equivalent you will be happy with it and do not fret about unusual antics of Biens. You have to finally be able to work well together until next year. 
Is a prerequisite for eventuellesspäteres Umweiseln that there is a good replacement queens in small colonies or offshoots available.

Combat varroa
Immediately after the dress as soon as possible Varroa should be fought. We should always remember that most winter losses are attributable to the varroa. The consistent and effective treatment must be reduced as much as possible the infestation. I would like to explain the various methods unspecified reasons of space and time constraints, but recommend the brochure "Varroa control". It gives answers to all questions that arise for Varroa problem.

Feed

Due to lack of costume needs to be fed after the final spin as soon as possible. The food supply should be approximately 15 kg. The feed is basically called me in the lid feeding trough, also Adamfütterer, passed. This type of feeding never leads to robbery as the bees take only under the cap that is placed over the rise, the feed.Additionally, through this small achievable by the bees face the   Recording delayed. This in turn leads to a prolonged irritation and ultimately to increased breeding approach, which already produces the first winter bees at this time. Personally, I've only thin sugar water in a ratio of one to one, ie, 1 kg of sugar in 1 liter of water fed. While this is relatively thin compared to almost all official recommendations and increases the workload for beekeepers and bee. This greater workload resulting in bee colonies to more effectiveness with regard to the development of strong winter people. Comparable to the situation with a good costume is in the people running too much, but they will develop excellent through increased parental care. The bee is a "workhorse" that feels most comfortable at full employment. Why should we the Bien, slimming by pre inverted food that is stored without processing a large part of the work? 

After extensive testing I am now completely switched to wheat-starch syrup. The decisive factor was ultimately the labor savings. The syrup is supplied in 1.000 L containers or gehol t. It is filled in handy canister, transported to the stands and filled without any problems with robbery in the Adamfütterer. 

To my surprise, the bees build even when feeding with wheat corn syrup existing walls means they need to support the excellent food from.

Working in July:
·        Last honey harvest
·        Filling the brood chamber with walls means
·        Form artificial swarms
·        Check quality of Weisel
·        Combat varroa
·        Start with Auffütterung






August 



Notes by Werner Gerdes 





Situation in August 

In August, the days are getting noticeably shorter. The notice also Bienen.Es is only maintained breed that survived the entire winter as adult bee and beyond the first brood maintains in the spring. 

The hatchery is scope to winter getting smaller. 
Who still have peoples costumes available store the registered honey only in the immediate vicinity of a breeding. 
Since no young queens must be mated no "men" are no longer required. The drones are not fed, the approach will be denied, and eventually they will even tapped. Which may still want umweiseln Only in very strong peoples or those few copies are kept. 

Securing the food supply 
Back in July, the people were provided with a first feed ration. I feed exclusively with wheat-starch syrup since 2011. Let the peoples least frequently have 10 kg of feed available until the end of September. In August the people still put a lot of fodder for breeding. So they get 4-5 kg supplies approximately every 14 days.   In the western Münsterland there is little balsam, for order in the autumn many farmers as green manure their fields with mustard. In warm weather, the mustard can honeys up in October. This has sometimes led to the incubation rooms total verhonigten. To prevent this, I think by the end of September, feed storage only about 10 kg. 


Building strong winter Peoples 
The young mated queens in July, which was added as a slip mature cells are now full of youthful laying activity. You need in August and September there is enough space and always empty cells. If the performance of these young queens is exploited peoples generate a lot of young bees and go very strong in the winter. These folks are all that are umgeweiselt until the autumn or even reinforced with offshoots far superior in the spring development. 
The best thing about it is that the workload for the beekeeper is relatively low. 

Performance assessment 
Towards the end of the month I control the economic performance of the Queen. To evaluate several criteria are used. Along the perimeter of the breeding also tried to see any diseases. For this I pay particular attention to as stopping not hatched brood cells. This is particularly noticeable in the edge region of the brood nest. 
As an economically relevant criteria apply to the use of propolis and the erection of Illegal building bridges for me. Both properties can strongly influence the speedy processing of peoples. 
In contrast, the color, or even a "Kubitalindex" for the selection of my queens does not matter. I have to admit though that I would give a with yellow rings on the rear of the preference for the same assessment of a brown leather queen or. 
The individual criteria with a scale of 1 - 6 judges, with 6 each representing the optimum. Very good impressions are graded but usually only with a 5 because it may have still something better. 
Several assessments in the course of deciding which Queen comes to breed in question. 

Requeened in autumn 

This assessment late August is decisive for the survival of the queen. Should the Queen as not prove optimally it is replaced in the fall. In September more. 


Robbery 
Since my floors are all built so that the air slot is only 7 -8 mm there is virtually no robbery. The bees can defend this flat "input" good. Only offshoots and artificial swarms I support by a smaller, narrow entrance. The young people I note, however on a separate parking space. 

Varroa 

Of course, the Varroa infestation must continue to be kept in mind. In August there may be severe infestations, although it was already countered in July. If necessary, the end of the month must already be engaged again. 


Honey rooms 

In the past I sort centrifuging the honeycomb. Those that are dry or moist honey and those who still "residual honey" included. 
The dry honeycomb straight into the honeycomb storage. This storage area is well ventilated but secured bees close by bars. This also protects from prying wasps, mice, and other animals. 
The not clean ejected honeycomb   from mid-August the economy peoples across the Adamfütterer fitted to lock out. The patch honey spaces because the people are now trying to store all the stores close to the breeding cleaned in a short time and then migrate also in the honeycomb storage. Since no combs were incubated in the supers and also contain no pollen need to be feared no infection of the wax moth.   


Working in August: 
Keep feed storage at about 10 kg 
Performance assessment 
Avoid robbery 
Control Varroa 
Store honeycomb 





September 



Note month September 

The summer comes to an end 

Hatching is maintained in the nations. The size of the brood nest, however, is getting smaller now. Still, there are a lot of short-lived summer bees in addition to the already numerous existing winter bees. The robbery - risk declines slowly. Drones are to be found only in exceptional cases among people who are not satisfied with their Queen and want umweiseln. 



Auffüttern 


By the middle of the month continues to feed requirements must be met. If approximately the 25.Sept. it is foreseeable that are no longer expected costume is now the peoples completely up-fed. 
The following should be considered: 
1. The still to be given food store bees close from the remaining brood. 
2. you need after normal setting of the breeding operation then the free space for the optimal wintering. The free space this is important because the bees sit in the empty cells. So use the space of optimal and can in the winter with less loss   keep the heat. 
This is also the reason why I feed only complete end of September. Because if by the time the often grown with us mustard or phacelia, as yet provide in other regions, the balsam, for a costume would totally verhonigen lack of space, the brood chamber. People are going to set the early breeding because they need the space for the fresh honey, and have no place in the winter for the "Winter Ball". A very bad winter or even a total failure would result. 
To estimate the amount of the still-reaching food I weigh the nations now by "feeling": I lift the entire hives back briefly. After nearly 20 years Dadant Beekeeping you have a feeling that amounts need to be fed. 
For precise control can be the booties of course weigh. The Dadant brood chamber including combs, bees, soil, Adamfütterer, inner cover and sheet metal hood weighs around 20 kg. As winter fodder to end Sept. least 20kg exist. 
But I do not weigh all the people lifted but with a simple Federzugwaage the hives back briefly. The balance must then show 20kg.   The entire booty then weighs about 40Kg.Empirically get away with it the strongest nations in an extreme winter well on the round and also in the spring a reserve. 

Especially now: Varroa control. 

Even if you did everything right in the Varroa reduction this is just in the autumn in a strong attack. There can be several reasons for this: firstly, the Brutumpfang goes far back and the existing mites infest the remaining brood intense, on the other hand, it may cause a sudden and intense re-invasion. This should be done about weekly sampling. 
For this purpose, a relatively simple and amazingly well-functioning method has proved to be ideal for me. 
I push a bottom liner for three days under the whole-area floor grille. After the third day on the fallen mites are counted. Divided by three results in the waste / day. 
It is important that the floor grating is contracted for this 3-day inspection by the diagnostic disk. Ants, wasps, mice, and other animals are accustomed to look for it on the floor among the spoils after the tasty mites. Until the new location of the mites, namely the diagnosis plate, discovered some time passes. 
In July / August must at 8 - 10 mites   / Day to act quickly and effectively. 
To pre-season schrittener the damage threshold decreases dramatically. 
End of Sept. must be traded already at 5 mites / day. Offshoot with a lower number of bees are correspondingly sensitive and may be damaged even at 1 mite / day. 
The end of November and in December should no mite be tolerated. 

Further information on Varroa - problems please refer to the following link 


Umweiseln peoples 

From about the middle of September all peoples can be umgeweiselt safely. 
As mentioned in August should now be assessed at every opportunity the breeding valuable property of their respective Queen to decide which Queen for further observation, or already provided for breeding, should continue to remain in the nation. 
For details on requeened in Oct. 

Working in September 
Complete Auffütterung 
Control Varroa 
Umweiseln peoples 


October 



Umweiseln peoples 



The autumn is ideal for Umweiseln of peoples. 

Through intensive observing and recording the values ​​for all relevant criteria in recent weeks and months opportunity queens is now replaced that do not meet my expectations. 

In the summer months it is difficult to safely bring in a young queen in a full-grown people. If the young queens also left alive, yet they are often attacked and carry them injury. 


Often, the immune response is due to the fact that the "boy" is not yet ripe. A queen to be eingeweiselt into an existing people must be at least 4-5 weeks in oviposition. Since the development of a fully-fledged can perform "boss" only at full oviposition it does not satisfy the young queen in too small a mating nuclei hold, in which, after 2 days of oviposition all cells has occupied. By such a forced break in the first weeks of oviposition, the queen can not be fully developed and is not accepted by the workers as "boss". 

A queen to be eingeweiselt must have been better for at least the kids' magazine in a branch. 

Without problems, however Altvölker from mid-September to be umgeweiselt until the end of March. The requeened is very easy. The old queen is removed and the "New" added in the same operation under Zuckerteigverschluss. 

egleitbienen in addition cage 

Queens may not at any time, not even   be temporarily without your folk. 
If the queen is only briefly held for a few hours in the cage, I was only 5-6 to bees. 
If, however, they sent 10-12 bees are required. Then the little people can survive even a longer transport over several days. Especially when mail delivery may result in significant delays that must be overcome. 

In addition I will always accompanying the bees in the cage so the young queen can be supplied without any interruption. I've never found the companion that bees have disturbed a good assumption of the young queen. 


Zuckerteigverschluss 

For the supply during transport and Ausfressverschluss is the consistency of the Futterteigs of great importance. In no case white Feedbee such as "Apifonda" may be used easier. This time dries quickly and is too hard, sometimes it is the warmth of the people too thin and running quickly. In both cases, the dish out of the new queen is disabled. For one, hard dried sugar dough from the bees not be resolved quickly enough, on the other hand the exemption goes too fast without habituation time and leads to poor acceptance of the "new". 
Since normal powdered sugar is added to preserve the throwing power with strength, and this is not well suited. 
Most suitable is a commercially available pre "Queens-feeding paste" 
two queens in the People's 

The Umweiseln a people with unsatisfactory queen can sometimes lead to surprises. 
If the people have already noticed that the old queen is wrong it may already umgeweiselt. Even if the "new" is already in full oviposition, the "old" still continue to tolerate the people. 
The beekeeper then examines the supposedly evil queen and is quite possibly the old, because they behave more calm and relaxed. In addition, they may be drawn and has a cut wings.

Thus, the beekeeper takes out the old and uses his new chosen regent to. 
The next spring he left wondering: the queen of the people is no longer drawn and: has both wings completely. 
What happened? 
The beekeeper has not noticed in the fall, that the people had already umgeweiselt. He only has the old queen who still got your "charity" in the people, removed and added to its new.The people did not agree and has the "New" disposed directly again. 


winter 

Of course, it is also time to make October the peoples of winter. 
The cover must be secured against storm. I put this on any loot a paving stone. 
The mouse protection is always given by my hives, as the entrance hole due to design only max. 8 mm high. Nevertheless, I have also checked. Uninvited guests were guaranteed to get inside find every opportunity. This includes the various woodpeckers. On the wooden hives but they seldom addressed to damage. 


Summary: 

Umweiseln in late autumn 
  Selection of the Queens 
Escort bees  
Zuckerteigverschluss 
Possible source of error 
Hardy peoples 




Month of November 


In November rest is announced for bees and beekeepers 















Month of December 

Varroa reduction
As a rule, in December the best opportunity denVarroa to reduce infestation because the people usually do not have capped brood in which the varroa could still reproduce and thus defies destruction. On the varroa reduction, I would like to address in detail within the month view. It differs by either prey systems are still operating modes. That is why I refer all questions to the varroa reduction to the brochure "Varroa control". This brochure provides answers to all the questions that arise for Varroa problem. Click the following link this brochure can be downloaded as a PDF file: www.apis-ev.de/uploads/media/SHVarroa.pdf 





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