Μελισσοκομικός Σύλλογος Νομού Πέλλας - Ο Μέγας Αλέξανδρος-ΠΕΝΤΑΠΛΑΤΑΝΟΣ ΤΘ 377,58100,ΓΙΑΝΝΙΤΣΑ ΠΕΛΛΑΣ-Τηλ:6937275481 Πρόεδρος Κοντόπουλος Αλέξανδρος, 6977 027612 Γιαλαμπούκης Γιώργος- Επίτιμος Πρόεδρος E-mail: beeclubpellas@yahoo.gr,beeclubpellas@gmail.com - BEE CLUB PELLAS-THE GREAT ALEXANDER-YΙANNITSA PELLAS, ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑ-MACEDONIA- HELLAS-GREECE,- Ωράριο λειτουργίας (ΔΕΥΤΕΡΑ+ΤΕΤΑΡΤΗ 18.00μμ-20.00μμ)

Δε φτάνει ο ήλιος μονάχα, η γη σοδειά να δώσει, χρειάζονται κι άλλα πολλά, και προπαντός η γνώση… (Κωστής Παλαμάς)

Έλληνες, ο πραγματικός Έλληνας ηγέτης θα βρεθεί. Το πιο σημαντικό αυτή τη στιγμή είναι να βρεθεί ο πραγματικός Έλληνας ΠΟΛΙΤΗΣ!"

"Προδότης δεν είναι μόνο αυτός που φανερώνει τα μυστικά της πατρίδος στους εχθρούς, αλλά είναι και εκείνος που ενώ κατέχει δημόσιο αξίωμα, εν γνώση του δεν προβαίνει στις απαραίτητες ενέργειες για να βελτιώσει το βιοτικό επίπεδο των ανθρώπων πάνω στους οποίους άρχει..." - Θουκυδίδης (460-398 π.Χ.)

Λένε ότι οι πραγματικοί φίλοι μπορεί να περάσουν μεγάλα χρονικά διαστήματα χωρίς να μιλήσουν ή να ειδωθούν, χωρίς ποτέ να τεθεί σε αμφιβολία η φιλία τους. Όταν βλέπονται, ενημερώνονται σαν να είχαν μιλήσει την προηγούμενη ημέρα, χωρίς να λαμβάνεται υπόψη ο χρόνος που πέρασε ή πόσο μακρυά ήταν!

“Γίνε εσύ η αλλαγή, αν θες να αλλάξεις τον κόσμο” Μ.Γκάντι

etm-mthoney-720p από cosmosdocumentaries

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Τρίτη 14 Μαρτίου 2023

Tropilaelaps mite A worse threat than varroa?

Tropilaelaps mite A worse threat than varroa? https://www.vatorex.com/blog/beekeeping-blog-2/tropilaelaps-mite-194 Tropilaelaps mite Since the varroa mite met the European honey bee in the 20th century, bee populations around the world have been decimated. Now the honey bees may be facing a new threat, one which shares many characteristics as the varroa mite - Tropilaelaps (or tropi mite). There of 4 species in the Tropilaelaps genus, 2 of which (Tropilaelaps clareae and Tropilaelaps mercedesae) are considered serious threats to the European honey bee. Tropilaelaps hail from tropical and sub-tropical Asia, where their primary host is the Giant Asian honey bee. Just like varroa, Tropilaelaps is an ectoparasitic mite that feeds on the heamolymph of developing bees. However, unlike its well-established cousin, the Tropilaelaps mite does not additionally feed on adult bees, as its mouthpiece is unable to penetrate the exoskeleton membrane wall. Due to this, the tropi mite spends most of its life in brood cells. The damage caused to developing bees is like that attributed to varroa. This includes fatality (up to 50% of brood), stunted growth, lower body weight and severely reduced lifespan. Tropilaelaps also vector viruses such as DWV. Lifecycle It takes approximately 7 days for the tropi mite egg to mature to adulthood. The shorter reproduction cycle presents a significant problem for beekeepers, as it results in even faster rates of infestation than varroa. In its native geography, Tropilaelaps is considered a worse threat than varroa and it is believed that if both mites infest the same colony, the tropi mite will outcompete varroa. As the young, parasitized bee emerges from the uncapped cell, 3-4 hatched tropi mites, as well as the foundress, also make their way out. The majority of the newly hatched tropi mites mate and re-enter new brood cells within 1-2 days after emerging. Without feeding, they die within 3 days. Tropilaelaps require brood to be present to stay alive, which is a limiting factor for their spread. Detection As the mite spends most of its life in the brood cell, detection is difficult. Successful varroa detection methods, such as the sugar shake or alcohol wash are inneffective. Instead, beekeepers must rely upon brood uncapping, bump testing, sticky board inspection and colony examination. Tell tale signs of the Tropilaelaps infestation are irregular brood patterns and perforated brood cappings caused by sanitary behaviour of the bees. It is common for heavily infested colonies to abscond from the hive. Defence In geographies with high infestation rates, beekeepers are forced to treat with miticides every two weeks. The miticide cycle (against varroa) commonly used by European and U.S beekeepers (2 to 3 treatments per year), is far too infrequent to stop infestation. Furthermore, some commonly used miticides, such as Amitraz have demonstrated no effect on Tropilaelaps populations. As such, stronger border controls are viewed as the best weapon against the spread of the pest. Scientists are conducting research to evaluate other forms of defence such as hyperthermy, which may prove to be more practical and effective solutions. Spread and distribution The spread of Tropilaelaps can occur due to beekeeper management practices, such as moving brood combs between colonies or transporting colonies, or from bee behaviour. The biology of the mite does support phoretic behaviour, however, as it does not feed on adult bees, spread via robbing, absconding, swarming and drifting are not as common as with varroa. This may be one reason as to why the tropi mite has not spread at the same pace as varroa. Despite their geographic distribution increasing significantly over the last 40 years, and several cases in locations such as Kenya, Tropilaelaps are still found only in Asia. However, many scientists fear that due to longer brood seasons, technical developments in global trade, and the mites rapid reproductive cycle, it is just a matter of time until the tropi mite makes its way to the rest of the world. Conclusion While the potential impact of Tropilaelaps remains to be seen, the threat is unquestionable. Strict border controls may be the best solution for the short term, but how sustainable are they for the long run? It is encouraging that scientists are looking for other sustainable solutions, so that that a legacy like the varroa mite, may be avoided. Resources Chemical and cultural control of Tropilaelaps mercedesae mites in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies in Northern Thailand Jeffery S. Pettis, Robyn Rose, Veeranan Chaimanee, Xiao-Yue Hong, 2017 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5681254/ Tropilaelaps mites Bee aware org https://beeaware.org.au/archive-pest/tropilaelaps-2/ Ecology, Life History, and Management of Tropilaelaps Mites Lilia I. de Guzman, Geoffrey R. Williams, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Panuwan Chantawannakul Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 110, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages 319–332, https://academic.oup.com/jee/article/110/2/319/3063341 Tropilaelaps mite: an emerging threat to European honey bee Panuwan Chantawannakul, Samuel Ramsey, Dennis van Engelsdorp, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Patcharin Phokasem https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2214574517300810

Tropilaelaps mercedesae - ο νέος πάρα πολύ επικίνδυνος εχθρός της Ευρωπαικής Μέλισσας- πιο επικίνδυνος και απο την Βαρρόα

'Ηδη εφτασε σε δυο μελισσοκομεια στην Ρουμανία τα οποία μπηκαν σε ΚΑΡΑΝΤΙΝΑ..
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p34t9JKadqI Dr Sammy Ramsey - The Tropilaelaps Mite: A Fate Far Worse Than Varroa https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65FBpI29xkk&t=5s Tropilaelaps the WORST mite of HONEY BEES. Tropilaelaps Introduction There are currently four species of Tropilaelaps mites. Of these only two (Tropilaelaps clareae and Tropilaelaps mercedesae) are considered serious mite threats to the Western honey bee Apis mellifera (Anderson and Morgan, 2007). Both are economically damaging pests throughout Asia. T. mercedesae is widely spread throughout Asian while T. Clareae is restricted to the Philippines. In coming years both could spread into temperate regions. Both are considered emerging threats to world apiculture. The potential effects of climate change and the risks this represents for establishment of these pests in the UK are being studied at the National Bee Unit. Please see the Research project pages for further details. More information is available in the advisory leaflet: Tropilaelaps: parasitic mites of honeybees. Geographical Range The known geographic range of Tropilalaelaps has spread significantly over the last 40 years. The main factor currently limiting survival and spread of exotic mites in the UK is their dependency on a continuous, year-round food supply of immature bees within parasitised colonies. Under existing climatic conditions, cold winters prevent A. mellifera from producing brood, so any introduced Tropilaelaps would starve. However, even slightly milder UK winters, as anticipated with global warming will support uninterrupted brood production. It is already known that in many parts of the UK there is brood present all year round, including in more northern areas of the country. This direct relationship between climate/host/parasite makes the Tropilaelaps/honey bee model particularly relevant to climate change scenarios. Life cycle Female T. clareae are light-reddish brown and about 1.0 mm long x 0.6 mm wide, while males are almost as large as the females (about one-third the size of a Varroa mite). The life cycle and parasitism of A. mellifera is similar to that of Varroa destructor. T. clareae readily infests colonies of A. mellifera in Asia, particularly where colonies continually produce brood . Adult female mites enter cells containing larvae where reproduction takes place within sealed brood cells. The mother mite lays three to four eggs on mature bee larvae 48 hours after cell capping. Development requires approximately 6 days, and the adults (including the mother mite) emerge with the hatching adult bee then search for new hosts. Mites move rapidly across the brood combs and are therefore easier to spot than Varroa, although they are much smaller. T. clareae has a shorter reproductive cycle than V. destructor, so when both mites are present in the same colony, T. clareae populations build up more rapidly. Current Status Currently, Tropilaelaps spp. is not present in the UK, but if introduced, could potentially cause major damage if they became established. The mite is statutorily notifiable in England and Wales by the Bee Diseases and Pests Control Order 2006 and the Bee Diseases and Pests Control (Wales) Order 2006 meaning that if a beekeeper suspects they have an infestation of Tropilaelaps mites, they must report it to the NBU. To help with surveillance efforts, the National Bee Unit Inspectorate carries out surveillance for Exotic pests each year in at risk apiaries, for example, those apiaries around ports or freight depots. Additionally, beekeepers are strongly encouraged to regularly monitor their hives for their presence. Any suspect mites should be sent immediately to the Laboratory for investigation. Contingency Plans Please follow the links below to download our Contingency Plans which outline proposed action in the event of an introduction of Tropilaelaps into England or Wales: English Pest Specific Contingency Plan Small Hive Beetle and Tropilaelaps mite; Welsh Pest Specific Contingency Plan Small Hive Beetle and Tropilaelaps mite. Further information is available on our Contingency Planning BeeBase page. Titre: Tropilaelaps: a parasitic disease of the brood Numéro d'identification: 10021 Source: Apimondia, IZSLT - Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana “Mariano Aleandri” Langue: Anglais Date de Publication: June 2019 Date de Révision: December 2020 Mots clés: Apiculture, Tropilaelaps, Couvain, Loque européennne, Loque américaine, Maladies des abeilles Catégories: Apiculture Pays: Plusieurs pays Région: Afrique subsaharienne, Asie du Sud, Océanie, Amérique du Nord, Afrique du Nord et Asie occidentale, Amérique latine et Caraïbes, Europe, Asie de l’Est et du Sud-Est, Asie centrale ODD: sdgssdgs Résumé Tropilaelapsosis affects honeybee larvae and pupae. It is caused by mites of the genus Tropilaelaps. The parasites feed on bee larvae and pupae, and cause malformation, death and subsequent swarming or colony decline. Tropilaelaps mites are common natural parasites of the giant honeybees distributed throughout Asia. Although Tropilaelaps spp. have not spread all around the world as have other bee pathogens, it represents a potential pathogen for the western honeybee Apis mellifera spp. Description 1. Introduction Tropilaelapsosis is caused by mites of the genus Tropilaelaps, external parasites of the honeybee that affect the bee larvae and pupae (Figure 1). The tropilaelaps mite shares some similarities with the varroa mite. It reproduces in the bee brood but, unlike the varroa mite, it cannot feed on adults because its buccal apparatus cannot penetrate the skin of adult honeybees. Therefore, it is not able to survive periods of brood interruption (natural absence of brood during the winter or artificially induced by queen caging). Female adult tropilaelaps mites are reddish-brown in colour, about 1 mm long and 0.6 mm wide. Male tropilaelaps mites are a little smaller. Figure 1. Tropilaelaps spp. adult on bee larvae and pupae ©CSIRO/Denis Anderson The adult mites enter the cells containing the bee larvae (of both worker bees and drones) to breed. Eggs hatch after about 12 hours, and the larvae feed on the bee larvae haemolymph. The mites cause damage on the larvae, which results in malformation of adult bees and a high mortality rate of bee brood (up to 50 percent). A typical characteristic of the adult tropilaelaps mite that can be observed during hive inspection is the rapid movement of the mites across the brood combs. 2. Symptoms In colonies heavily affected by tropilaelapsosis, the damage is very similar to varroosis, with high brood mortality, and weak adults with deformed wings and legs, and abdomens smaller than normal. Bees can also be found paralysed at the entrance of the hive. Other symptoms are an irregular brood pattern and perforated cappings, as the worker bees attempt to clean up sick or dead larvae. In heavily affected hives, up to 50 percent of the brood may die. In such cases, a bad smell of dead brood associated with the Tropilaelaps spp. infestation can be observed. At such levels of infestation, bees frequently swarm, contributing to the spread of the mite. 3. Transmission The tropilaelaps mite can spread from hive to hive through drifting of adult honeybees carrying the mite on their bodies, looting of infested hives, and swarming. However, the spread of the parasites may occur also through common beekeeping practices, such as moving affected brood combs from one hive to another, migratory beekeeping, and the buying and selling of parasitized colonies/nucs. 4. Diagnosis A beekeeper could confuse tropilaelaps mites with varroa mites due to their similarity (Figure 2). The body of the female varroa mite is wider than it is long (measuring 1.1 to 1.2 mm in length and 1.5 to 1.6 mm in width) and it moves quite slowly, whereas the body of tropilaelaps mite is elongated and females measure about 1 mm in length and 0.6 mm in width (males are slightly smaller). The tropilaelaps mite moves much faster than the varroa mite . Figure 2. Adults of Varroa destructor (left) and Tropilaelaps spp. (right) ©IZSLT/Giovanni Formato The diagnosis of this parasitic disease is visual, and is carried out through the observation of infected bee brood or by the observation of tropilaelaps mites the have fallen onto the bottom of the hive after a treatment with authorized acaricide products (see below). 4.1 Adult honeybee examination Adult tropilaelaps mites are usually only present in low numbers on adult bees in any given bee colony. Hence, it is usually a waste of time to try to find them manually on individual bees. Indeed, mites can be easily observed on the brood comb. 4.2 Comb bump test The “comb bump” method is a rapid and simple proven method to detect tropilaelaps mites in the colony. First, remove a comb from the brood box containing capped brood. Shake all adult bees from the frame back into the colony. Then, firmly bump the frame over a white metal pan by hitting one end of the frame on the side of the pan, turning the frame, re-bumping the frame, and repeating the process once more for a total of four bumps. This process dislodges mites on the surface of the comb. The adult tropilaelaps mites can now easily be counted on the surface of the white pan. 4.3 Brood examination When monitoring honeybee colonies for the presence of tropilaelaps mites, an examination of both drone and worker brood may provide an early indication of infestation. Mites can be observed inside capped bee brood by using a honey uncapping scratcher to pull up capped pupae. The mites are clearly visible. The younger mite stages are whitish and may be almost motionless while feeding on their hosts’ bodies, as their mouthparts and front legs are fixed to the cuticle of the bee host. 4.4 Sticky board examination A precise diagnosis can be made using a sticky board on the bottom of the hive, covered with a mesh (2 mm) that prevents the bees from removing the dislodged mites. A mesh of 2 mm is large enough for mites to pass through. Make a sticky board with poster board, cardboard or other white, stiff paper coated with petroleum jelly (e.g. Vaseline) or another sticky substance, or use a sheet of sticky shelf paper. Cut the paper to fit the bottom board of the hive. Leave the bottom board under the hive for up to three days, collecting and examining the debris for mites. For faster mite diagnosis, smoke each colony, adding 25 g of pipe tobacco to the smoker. Puff the bees 6 to 10 times, and close up the hive for 10 to 20 minutes. Pull out the sticky board after at least 10 minutes and count the mites. The number of mites collected should be recorded and compared – different hives and different months of the year – to allow monitoring of the impact of the number of mites on the hive (e.g. losses in vitality or production). 5. Prevention and control Tropilaelaps spp. control can be carried out by creating a broodless stage in the hive for at least five days. This can be done by caging the queen, through artificial swarming (shaking the bees into a new hive with wax foundations), or by removing the combs containing brood. The tropilaelaps mite is unable to feed on adult bees and cannot survive for more than two days without brood. This is a very efficient and harmless method. The mite population can also be controlled by applying registered authorized acaricides to kill tropilaelaps mites. These products contain the same active ingredients that are able to kill varroa mite: soft acaricide – mainly organic acid, such as oxalic acid or formic acid; essential oils, such as thymol; hard acaricide – mainly pyretroids, such as fluvalinate; organophosphates, such as coumaphos. Tropilaelapsosis prevention is possible with the adoption of good beekeeping practices (GBPs) and biosafety measures in beekeeping (BMBs). Table 1 provides some good practices that beekeepers should adopt to prevent and/or control tropilaelapsosis. Table 1. Good beekeeping practices for control of tropilaelaps mite population Recommendation Advantage or reason for practice Use hives with screened bottom boards. Allows counting of natural mite fall. Increase the efficacy of the acaricide treatments by combining them with bringing the colony into an artificial broodless state through brood removal, queen caging, or artificial swarming. Increases the efficacy of the acaricide treatment. Maintain the number of mites below the damage threshold by acting on signs of the disease and reduction in productivity of the colony. Guarantees the health of the hives and limits production losses. Adopt diagnostic tools for measuring infestation levels such as the icing sugar method. Monitors the infestation levels. Treat simultaneously all colonies of the apiary and in the same area. Prevents the risk of re-infestation from untreated hives. Have good knowledge of the symptoms and of the modes of transmission. Allows optimal identification and control of the parasite. Monitor efficacy of acaricide treatments. Allows evaluation of the control measure adopted. Rotate acaricides to avoid resistance. Prevents the development of Tropilaelaps spp. resistance to acaricides. Try to select and breed colonies that are tolerant and resistant. Reduces the number of treatments needed. 6. Related/associated technologies Nosemosis: a fungal disease of adult honeybees: ID 8413. Varroa mites (Varroatosis or Varroosis): a parasitic disease of the brood and adult honeybees: ID 8416. Good beekeeping practices: ID 8409. Bee viruses: ID 8419. Main diseases of honey bees: ID 8412. Chalkbrood: a fungal disease of the brood: ID 9002. American foulbrood (AFB): a bacterial disease of the brood: ID 10018. Amoebiasis: a parasitic disease of adult honeybees: ID 10019. Small hive beetle (SHB): ID 10020. Tropilaelaps: a parasitic disease of the brood: ID 10021. Stonebrood (aspergillosis): a fungal disease of the brood and adult honeybees: ID 10031. European foulbrood (EFB): a bacterial disease of the brood: ID 8418. This technology is also available in French: ID 10132. 7. Objectives fulfilled by the project 7.1 Resource-use efficiency This practice allows for improved beehive management through early diagnosis of tropilaelapsosis and effective management of the disease. 7. Further reading IZSLT. 2007. Aspetti igienico-sanitari in apicoltura, (27-28).

Τρίτη 4 Ιανουαρίου 2022

Mια πανευρωπαϊκή έρευνα που αφορά στη μελισσοκομία στην Ευρώπη

 Mια  πανευρωπαϊκή έρευνα που αφορά στη μελισσοκομία στην Ευρώπη. 

 Πρόκειται για ανεξάρτητη έρευνα με επικεφαλής τον Samuel Perichon από το Πανεπιστήμιο της Ρεν στη Γαλλία και συμμετέχουν πολλές χώρες. 

Η έρευνα βασίζεται σε ένα Ερωτηματολόγιο (όμοιο για όλες τις χώρες) το οποίο συμπληρώνεται από μελισσοκόμους (ερασιτέχνες και επαγγελματίες). Το ερωτηματολόγιο είναι στον παρακάτω σύνδεσμο: 


Σημειωτέον πως η έρευνα είναι ανώνυμη. 

Τα αποτελέσματά της θα δημοσιευθούν στο Journal of Apicultural Research και εάν το επιθυμείς, μπορείς να συμπληρώσεις στο τελευταίο πεδίο το  email σου ώστε να σου αποσταλούν.